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The Magazine For Apple III Owners and Users / 



.Volume 3, Number 12 

December 1986 

Using System Utilities Deslctop Module 
Graphics Manager Three Shorts - 

Improving Your Memory 


Disk af ihc Mauih 

What is the ultimate time-saver? \X^y ON THREE'S Disk of the Month diskettes, of course. Why use your 
precious time typing in ON THREE program listings when they are available on diskette for just $ 1 4.95 (plus 
$2 shipping and handling) each? 

Better yet, mix and match. Any two or more for $1 2.50 each (plus $4 total shipping and handling). Best bet: 
the works. 

Now is the time to start your collection of these program-filled diskettes from all issues of ON THREE l\/lagazine. 
Bulk and group purchase rates are also available, call (805) 644-3514 to inquire about these super savers. 

DOM #1— Extra Disk Space Plus! 

This diskette contains all progranns from volume I, nos. 1 
and 2 of ON THREE Magazine. Included: Disk Pakl with a 
program to give you four additional blocks of space on your 
data disks, and Disk Pak2, something you can't do without if 
you are a Pascal user, a convenient and easy way to list the 
files on a Pascal directory. Plus graphics and sound demos 
and more. 

DOM #2— Changing Printer Characters 

Here is an amazing program you won't want to miss. With 
it you can print to the Apple Dot Matrix and compatibles 
such as Imagewriter or ProWriter the same characters that are 
shown on your video display. Many special fonts, including 
fancy gothic characters, can enhance your printed output. 
And, it comes with complete documentation. Also on DOM 
#2 are the other programs from issue number 3, more graphic 
demos plus: a program to list files from an Apple II diskette 
without entering emulation mode. 

DOM #3— Redefining a Keyboard 

This disk is jam-packed full with programs that appeared in 
Volume 1, No. 4 of ON THREE, and includes an easy-to-use 
program to redefine any or all keys on the Apple /// 
keyboard. Of particular interest is the ability to reassign the 
"\" to be the delete key so it can be used on AppleWriter /// 
and other programs. Also included are all the WPL programs, 
a disk formatting utility, a graphics sketching tool and still 
more that we don't have room to list here. 

DOM #4— Emuiation Patch 

Volume II, No. 1 had so many great programs it took two 
disks, DOM's 4 and 5, to hold them all. DOM 4 has all of the 
Pascal programs and the Apple 1( Emulation Patch, a way to use 
any Apple /// Font in emulation. Also included is the Pascal 
startup program for Access /// that lets you autodial. Another 
fine utility is a Pascal program and UNIT to permit 
calculations from within the Pascal environment. Demos 
haven't been forgotten either with Radiate Graphics Demo and 
Beatles Music Demo. To top things off, we have included a 
number of Draw ON pictures you can view with the program 
on DOM #5. 

DOM #5— Access Draw ON 

Here we find the BASIC startup program to autodial from 
Access ///, and Ben's SUPER Slot Machine, along with all of the 
VisiCalc and WPL programs, and the Circling Graphics Demo 
which will show some of the fantastic images that Draw ON 
can create, plus still more Draw ON pictures, along with the 
Draw ON ///Picture Demo which you use to view Draw ON 

DOM #6— BASiC Lister Pius! 

Straight from the pages of Vol. II, No. 2 is a program which 
will give you perfectly formatted listings of Business Basic 
programs, and a Pascal program to guide and assist you in 
selecting noises for animation and game programs. Both the 
Pascal Noisemaker and the BASIC lister come with full 
documentation. We've also tossed in still more Draw ON 
pictures and some new fonts, as well. You can use the Draw 
ON viewer from DOM 5 to see them. 

DOM #7— Heap Good Stuff 

From Vol. ///, Nos. 1 and 2 we present a BASIC heap sort 
routine and demo, IMAGEHELPER, a neat graphics utility to 
simplify graphic image design, and a menu-driven program to 
pre-select printer codes and parameters. 

DOM #8— Directory Sorting 

Here is what you have been waiting for, a complete BASIC 
and Assembly program to take those old chopped up 
directories and sort them out in just the order you want. 
Included also is Clean.Heads, a Pascal program which 
excercises your disk drive at cleaning time and writes a 
program to remind you when you last cleaned heads, plus a 
simple utility to read a text file and find out what the 
contents are without having to write a program on the spot. 

DOM #9— Music, Music, Music 

Here is a great collection of programs from April through 
luly, 1986. Music Maker and Music Player let you create and play 
your own Merry Melodies with alternate sets of DATA 
statements in BASIC. Energy Plotter not only plots energy 
consumption graphs, but contains techniques to "roll your 
own." In addition you will find a space game, graphics images 
and an assembly language subroutine to find maximum and 
minimum values in an integer array. 

DOM #10— Editing Cliaracter Sets 

A great Pascal program to download and modify or create 
new fonts, this editor makes childs-play out of designing new 
text characters to meet your specific needs. Special math 
signs, foreign alphabets, you can do them all. Football Pool is a 
BASIC program to print out a grid for that office pool. All you 
do is type in the teams, the scores, and the participants; it 
does the rest. What? 3-D Video? Yes, indeed, Stereo Spiral 
shows how, using simple Business Basic subroutines. For the 
more technically inclined, the assembly subroutine Pixel 
Inverter does just that. Also included is Prompt Procedure, a 
collection of Pascal and assembly demos to write to the 
screen, and a couple of programs in WPL (Word Processing 
Language) to be used with AppleWriter. 


Bob Consorti 


Lynne Denicola 


Joseph Consorti 

Janet Schanz 

Technical Support: 

Terry McNeese 

Tim Harrington 

Order Department: 

(800) 443-8877 (toll-free) 
(800) 331 -141 8 (in California) 


Ojai Printing & Publishing 
Ojai, CA 

ON THREE -The Reference Source for the 
Apple /// is published monthly by ON THREE, 
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93003 (P.O. Box 3825, Ventura, CA 93006). 
For a copy of author guidelines, send a 
stamped, self-addressed envelope to the 
above address. Current page rate is $25 per 
printed page. 

Return postage must acconpany all submitted 
manuscripts, diskettes and drawings if they are 
to be returned. All manuscripts longer than 
500 words or program listings longer than one- 
half page must be accompanied dv a diskette 
to be considered. No responsibility can be 
assumed for unsolicited materials. All letters 
received by ON THREE unless specifically 
marked to the contrary will be considered as 
unconditionally assigned for publication and 
are subject to ON THREE s right to edit and 
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Please contact ON THREE at the above 
address for information on current volume 
pricing and terms. 

ON THREE is a registered trademark of ON 
THREE, Inc. Apple, Apple ][, Apple ][ plus, 
Apple ///, Apple /// plus, Applesoft, Apple 
Business Basic, Disk ][, Disk ///, UniDisk, Lisa, 
LisaDraw, Macintosh, MacPaint, MacWrite and 
ProFile are registered trademarks of Apple 
Computer, Inc. Micro-Sci and Gameport /// are 
registered trademarks of Standum Controls, 
Inc. Selector /// is a registered trademark of 
Sabre Software, Inc. ON THREE O'Clock, 
Lazarus ///, Draw ON ///, Desktop Manager and 
ONTIME are registered trademarks of ON 
THREE, Inc. 

Opinions expressed in this magazine are 
those of individual authors and staff and not 
necessarily those of ON THREE. 

Entire contents copyright (c) 1986 by ON 
THREE. All rights reserved. 



ill III ill III 

Table of Contents 

/// /// /// /// 

Volumes, No.1 2 

December, 1986 


Using System Utilities 3 

Graphics Manager 11 

Kevin E. FitzMaurice 

John R. Sollman 

This one's just for the beginners. 

Are graphic problems getting you 

You'll see how easy it is to use 

down? If so, check out this 

both the device and file handling 

review of the Graphics Manager. 


It may be what you need. 

Three Shorts- Fini! 6 

Improving Your Memory 29 

Somvang Hansana 

Lynne Denicola 

Three short programs for your 

hlow many pairs of glasses have 

enterrtainment and amusement: 

you lost this year? Pairs of 

Color Diamond, Random Designs 

gloves? Sorry, but this article 

and Random Shapes. 

won't help improve your memory 

as much as it will your 

Desktop IVIanager Module 7 


Tim Harrington 

Not only does Tim show you how 

to create your own Desktop 

module, he does it with a screen 

dump module that works. 




Lynne Denicola 


Call Three: Hot Line 


ON THREE Price List 


One, Two, /// Forum 


Apple /// User Groups 



Richard and Lavona Rann 


ON: The Cover 

This bird graphic demo is provided with every "Graphics Manager," a graphics program 
created by Mel Astrahan. An article by the same name, written by John R. Sollman, is 
ON THREE Magazine's ieaXure article this month. 


lynne denicoJa 

The Joy of Publishing 

Does the print of this issue appear foreign to you? If it 
does it is because I am now a Desktop Publisher. The 
joys and sorrows behind that statement are 
commingled for me. 

Joys: No more typesetter-induced headaches or 
nightmares. No more delays because I didn't know 
what they were up to or visa versa. No more panic- 
stricken heart stoppages after discovering a headline I 
failed to submit. 

Sorrows: Hello, tedious hours spent composing one 
page. Hello, neck ache from crouching ever closer to 
the display tube in hopes of exactly aligning boxes and 
words and lines. Hello, glasses. 

This glorious and hideous new responsibility began 
less than a month ago when ON THREE received its 
long awaited and highly anticipated LaserWriter. We 
had been on the waiting list for months and, when it 
finally arrived, were not surprised to see that it was 
shipped to us on the same day its production was 
completed. As with most of the new toys we receive 
here. Publisher Bob Consorti took the first crack at it, 
printing a flawless product advertisement among other 
things. I am its chief operator now, although it is 
linked to another computer in the building as well. It 
is noiseless, expeditious and produces impeccable 
print outs. It is also easy to maintain and service. 

Before I mention the computers I used to produce 
these pages, I must explain my reasons for using 
them. Richard and Lavona Rann wrote that a wise 
computer user will select the best machine available for 
the task at hand. And with the support and generosity 
of ON THREE, this is what I have done. 

The Apple /// cannot be beat for its business-type 
applications, especially its data base and word proces- 
sing capabilities. For this issue, I used my Apple /// 
plus with 512K memory upgrade to edit and finalize 
all of the copy. The ///'s word processor and spelling 
checker cannot be surpassed. 

I then used a fantastic program (also newly arrived) 
called "Passport," written by Karl B. Young of Apple 

Computer, to convert my SOS files to (drum roll 
please) Macintosh text files. 

Yes, Macintosh. Why? Because it is the best machine 
for my purpose: to produce camera-ready copy with 
absolutely no paste up involved. The Macintosh/ 
LaserWriter combination is unbeatable in Desktop Pub- 
lishing today. The comparative ease of text placement 
and abundance of programs available for this purpose 
make it so. I simply use PageMaker by the Aldus 
Corporation to create complete pages of my Apple-///- 
produced text. Trying to create new text with a 
Macintosh is unbelievably slow because it is a graphics- 
based computer. Sure it's nice to see what the page 
will look like on the console as you type, but the 
process is tiring and awkward. The Mac has no arrow 
keys and the mouse is merely an annoyance when 
attempting to create or edit text. 

But once the text is created, displaying and moving it is 
simple with the Macintosh. And it is a great help 
seeing the finished articles as they will appear in print. 

Once I am more proficient with Aldus' PageMaker, it 
will reduce the lead time of producing the magazine. 
Formerly, I received a Xerox of the typesetter's copy, 
created a rough paste up of it and returned those dum- 
mies to the typesetter for final layout. This wastes my 
energy not only in performing the task outright, but 
also in checking that all of the typesetting commands 
and layout diagrams I specified were followed and 
executed correctly. Now if something is amiss, it is 
my fault because I edit, typeset and layout the issue. It 
is an awesome responsibility but, with the help of my 
strategically chosen computers and software, what 
could go wrong? 

Happy Holidays! 

This is my first winter spent on the west coast and I 
must admit I don't miss the snow yet, though friends 
and relatives back east do keep me abreast of the latest 
cold snaps and snow falls. So, from here in sunny 
Southern California, I and everyone at ON THREE 
wish you and your loved ones the happiest and safest 
holiday season ever. 

May your errors be few and your console, bright. /777 

December, 1986 ON THREE 

Using System Utilities 

kevin e. fitzmaurice 

It's surprising how many people believe the Apple /// 
and its Sophisticated Operating System (SOS) are 
beyond comprehension. It's even more surprising 
because the pathname and other SOS concepts are also 
used by other machines which are allegedly easier to 
use. Sure, if you want to do advanced programming 
on the Apple ///, then you must talk to SOS in both 
Pascal and Assembly. But that bewildering trip isn't 
necessary because Apple provided a diskette called 
Utilities with every Apple ///. 

The Utilities diskette contains all the functions needed 
to successfully operate your Apple ///. SOS Utilities is 
the set of tools you need to work with disks and files 
and to add or change hardware. You need no 
understanding of programming to use these utilities. 
There are no cryptic commands to learn as with other 
systems. Instead, you only need to be able to read and 
spell at an acceptable level. 

Hello, SOS? 

First put the Utilities disk in the built-in system disk 
drive and either turn on your machine, which will 
cause an automatic cold boot of the disk (reading the 
disk into memory and executing it without anything 
else being there), or press CONTROL-RESET, 
which will also cold boot the disk. Once booted, SOS 
is awake and ready to talk to you in the form of menus 
and simple prompts (suggestions). You will see the 
main menu on your screen. There are only four 
options for you to choose, and one of these is for 
quitting or ending your activity. To quit without using 
this command, simply remove the disk, insert a new 
one and press CONTROL-RESET. 

Since you've just begun, you don't want to quit yet. 
But now that quitting has been covered, remaining are 
only three other types of work SOS can do for you: 
work on your devices (diskettes for the most part); 
work on files (hard disk files or floppy disk files); and 
work on SOS's drivers (peripheral interfacing). 

Working With Devices 

Device handling commands are the top menu choice. 
To see what these are, either type D or move the cursor 
with the up and down arrow keys until it is on the D 

and press either RETURN or ENTER. Doing this 
presents another menu, but with six choices now. 

The first menu choice, "Copy one volume onto 
another," lets you use SOS to copy the contents of an 
entire diskette onto another diskette. To do this, either 
type C (for copy) or move the cursor over that line and 
press RETURN or ENTER. You are now looking 
at another screen which prompts you for the name of 
the disk you want to copy. SOS has already supplied a 
name for you. You will find that SOS always guesses 
what names you will enter so you don't have to type 
them in. In this case SOS has guessed .D2. SOS 
assumes the disk you want to copy is in disk drive 
number two (first external drive), which is the most 
likely place for it. But, you say, SOS listed no name 
for the diskette (volume name). That is because SOS 
needs either the name or the drive number, not both. 
Although you could supply the name, it is easier to 
remember and type either .Dl or .D2 than the 
diskette's volume name. If you have the disk in a 
different drive, then move the cursor with the left 
arrow key over the 2 and enter the correct number. 

Next, SOS asks you the name of the drive with the 
diskette receiving the copy. SOS suggests .Dl, and if 
that is the case, press RETURN or ENTER. 
Finally, SOS asks you what name you want the copy 
to have. If you want it to have the same name as the 
one you are copying, hit RETURN again. Being the 
inquisitive system that it is, SOS asks yet another 
question. (When will it be able to read minds?) This 
time it asks whether you're sure you want to make the 
copy to that disk and thereby overwrite all data on it. 
SOS doesn't know it contains an old mess you would 
be delighted to get rid of, so tell it to proceed by 
pressing Y (for yes). You can make copies using only 
the built-in disk drive, but this is cumbersome and 
involves constantly shuffling diskettes. Although it's 
awkward, it can be done, because SOS keeps track of 
which diskette is which. 

The other options from the Device Handling 
Commands Menu are even simpler to use and work 
very much the same way. Press ESCAPE once to 
return to that menu. 

ON THREE December, 1 986 

You can rename a floppy disk with a more appropriate 
name using the second, "Rename a volume," option. 
Simply insert the disk's original name or drive number 
when prompted and then the new name. SOS does the 
rest. Those new diskettes you just bought can be set 
up to work with SOS by using the "Format a volume" 
option. SOS provides names for your new disks to 
quicken the formatting process by using the word 
BLANK followed by two digits. If you are having 
trouble loading, running or saving data, make sure it is 
not the fault of bad blocks (groups of 512 bytes each) 
on the disk. Check for errors with the "Verify a 
volume" option. 

You can produce a listing of the devices (drivers) you 
have available on any diskette with the "List devices 
configured" option. You can also set the date and 
time, which you really should have done immediately 
after booting the utilities. SOS uses the last date and 
time it had in memory to mark your files if you don't 
enter a new one. 

Perhaps while in the midst of executing one of the 
above options you decide you don't want to do it. All 
you need do is press ESCAPE (the panic button) until 
SOS retums you to the menu you want. Let's panic 
and go back to the main menu (hit ESCAPE twice). 


Pathnames help you find your file in the hierarchical 
file structure of SOS. Do you remember the format of 
a simple outline? Have you used a filing system in 
which main files are further categorized into single 
subjects? Can you use the card catalog of your local 
library? If you answered yes to any of these 
questions, then you already know more than enough to 
successfully use the hierarchical filing system of SOS. 
The path through directory levels which SOS must 
follow to reach a file is that file's complete pathname. 
The number of directory levels is up to you, within 

File pathnames start with either a device or volume 
name. For example, .PROFILE is the device name for 
the Profile hard disk drive. To access any file on the 
Profile you must begin the pathname with the file's 
device name, .PROFILE, or its directory (volume) 
name, /PROFILE. All device names begin with a 
period so SOS will know it is dealing with a device, 
not an actual file. 

SOS must also know where the first name in the path 
ends and another begins. To accomplish this, you 
must use delimiters. Delimiters are single characters 
which SOS knows are never allowed to be part of a file 
name. These characters are therefore called name 
separators or delimiters. Other delimiters could have 

been used, but Apple chose the backward slash (/) as 
the delimiter for SOS. Now we have .PROFILE/ as 
the device. It could also be /PROFILE/ if you're using 
the volume name, or .D2/ if you're using a floppy disk 

What follows next may be the name of the file you 
want. Simply enter it and you have reached the end of 
your path. But, the next item could also be a 
subdirectory name. A directory or subdirectory is not 
a file, but rather a general name for groups of files. 
Directories and subdirectories can be Hsted or cataloged 
to show the individual files they contain. Files cannot 
be as they are divided no further. 

Let's assume you have a subdirectory for your letters. 
Type in the device name containing the subdirectory, 
.PROFILE/, followed by the subdirectory name, 
.PROFILE/LETTERS/, and then add the name of the 
specific letter you want, .PROFILE/LETTERS/ 
SMITH. This locates the file SMITH in subdirectory 
LETTERS on the Profile. You summon files using 
pathnames like this regularly with Apple Writer /// by 
first pressing CONTROL-L to load your file to the 
computer screen. 

Working with Files 

The second area of the Utilities package deals with all 
kinds of files. Choose Option F, "File handling 
commands," from the main menu. Here you have 
seven options for handling files. Beginning at the top 
again, choose the L option, "List files." SOS now 
asks what directory you want listed. I use this 
frequently to see what files are on my Profile. So, 
why not type .PROFILE over SOS's suggestion. 
Press RETURN. 

You are now asked if you want ALL directory levels. 
If you want the main directory and only some 
subdirectory levels listed, type the number of 
subdirectory levels you want over the default ALL. 
Next you may choose the device to which the listing 
will be sent. Here the default is .CONSOLE, meaning 
the listing will appear on your screen. I usually type 
over this prompt, entering the printer device or 
.PRINTER. This produces a hard copy (provided my 
printer is on) so I can easily reference of all the files on 
my Profile. Should you make a mistake while typing a 
device or pathname, correct it by moving the cursor 
back over the word with the left arrow key and 
retyping it. Extra spaces after the word will not cause 
problems. Pressing ESCAPE here retums you to the 
primary File Handling Commands Menu. 

The next File Menu choice is C or "Copy files." Use 
this to transfer files from disk to disk or even to a 
different subdirectory on the same disk. The "Copy 

December, 1986 ON THREE 

files" option can also be used to send any SOS file to 
the printer by merely naming the destination file as 
.PRINTER. The File Menu also gives the simple 
options necessary to delete and rename files. Just 
press D for "Delete files" or R for "Rename files." 

A very important option is the M or "Make a new 
subdirectory" option. Use this to create subdirectories 
(subordinate to the main directory) on your disk 
whether it is a Profile or a floppy. If you have Version 
1.2 of the System UtiUties program, list the device 
name and then the name you'd like the subdirectory to 
have. In all other versions, SOS presents a default 
suggestion. This time it says to leave room for 25 files 
under your new subdirectory. You can change that by 
typing the number of files you think you will 
eventually need over it. A main directory may contain 
only 51 files, which may be all subdirectories, all files 
or a bit of each. Subdirectories may have both files 
and subdirectories under them as well. This allows a 
true hierarchical file structure to be developed using 
SOS. Files, of course, can only have actual data under 

Why bother with subdirectories? First, 51 files seem 
like a lot on a diskette, but on a Profile the number 
seems minute. If you create 51 small main files, SOS 
will not let you create another and you will be left with 
a vast amount of unusable memory on your Profile. 
Hence the need for subdirectories. With only one main 
file you can have 51 subdirectories, and each of those 
can have an almost limitless number of subdirectories. 
You conceivably could never need another main file. 

Subdirectories look like main directories but are listed 
under them. Therefore, the directory name must 
appear before the subdirectory name in the pathname to 
gain access to the subdirectory and the files or 
subdirectories under it. 

Another reason for using subdirectories is that most 
software allows you to set a prefix pathname to load or 
save files. The prefix may be the device name alone or 
a pathname including the device as well as subdirectory 
names. Either way, it saves you some typing. 
Finally, the file names are clearer and more easily 
defined when made part of an orderly grouping of 
directories and subdirectories rather than being 
scattered throughout your disks. 

Option W is a safety feature, "set Write protection." 
Using this you may protect crucial files on a disk 
which is not write protected while leaving others open 
to change. Remember, files write protected this way 
cannot be copied until the write protection status has 
been changed. 

The File Menu's final feature is the P or "set Prefix" 
option. This is a convenience feature, saving you time 
and avoiding tedious and repetitious typing. The 
prefix is the first part of a pathname. Once the prefix 
has been set, SOS will supply that prefix each time it 
prompts you for a file name. You may supply a 
different one at any time and SOS won't object. Most 
of these operations on files are available from Apple 
Writer ///, Business BASIC and Pascal as well. In 
fact, instead of using the Pascal Filer, you may use the 
SOS Utilities with its superior features from Pascal 
instead. Simply copy the SYSTEM.START-UP file 
from the utilities disk to the Profile and rename it 
SYSTEM.FILER as you do so. 

Rules to Remember 

While using System Utilities, you will most often use 
the device name .Dl. Device names must always 
begin with a period followed by a letter, then any 
combination of letters and numbers up to a total of 15 
characters. Volume names are always preceded by a 
backward slash (/) and must also begin with a letter. 
They may then contain letters, numbers and periods in 
any combination but may not exceed a total of 15 
characters. Local names (the names of specific files) 
and subdirectory names both follow the same rules as 
Volume names. Pathnames are limited to a total of 128 
characters so don't use long file names. These rules 
are quite logical and should pose no problems. 

The System Configuration Program is the third option 
in the Main Menu and will be examined in a future 
issue. It is a powerful tool and deserves an articl e of 

its own. ILU 


If you haven't logged onto the ON THREE On 
Line BBS lately, you should. It has been given a 
face-lift by our resident programming expert, Tim 

The BBS is now easier to use because of its new, 
more logical directory format which is shorter and 
more effectively organized. Also, downloading 
files was difficult if you tried it at 1200 baud. Tim 
fixed the programming so it instantaneously 
responds to CONTROL-S and CONTROL-X 
commands. You will never lose information again 
because your disk cannot keep up with the 1200 
baud transmission rate. 

Tim is currendy in charge of the BBS, so if you 
have any questions or comments regarding it, 
address them to him. 

ON THREE December, 1 986 

Three Shorts - Fini! 

somvang hansana 

Return with me now to the days of yesteryear! Sound 
familiar? Does this column look familiar? It should. 
When the magazine was first published, every issue 
contained three short, fun programs for you to use and 
enjoy. Mail has poured in requesting this columns 
resurrection, but due to lack of sub-missions, 
publishing it in every issue is impossible. But when I 
do have three good ones to print, as I did this month, I 
will print them. 

If you like this column, and I know you do, why not 
compose a few of your own and share them. You 
need not write three. If everyone out there wrote one, 
I would have enough to publish this column forever. 

NOTE: For all of the programs listed on this page, 
make sure you have inserted your basic disk into one 
of your drives or set your hard disk prefix to the 
BASIC subdirectory containing "bgraf.inv" and 
remove "basic" from the invoke lines. 



Color Diamond 
by Somvang Hansana 

A treat for those of you 
with color monitors . 
Copyright (c) 198 6 by 


10 ON ERR INVOKE"/basic/bgraf .inv" 

2 PERFORM initgrafixiOFF ERR 

30 PERFORM graf ixmode (%1, %1) 

40 PERFORM fillport 

50 PERFORM grafixon 

55 ON KBD GOTO 1000 

5 6 FOR v=9 TO 13 

57 PERFORM pencolor(%v) 

60 FOR a=0 TO 279 STEP 5 

70 PERFORM moveto (%139,%95) 

80 PERFORM lineto (%a, %191) 

85 PERFORM moveto (%139, %95) 

90 PERFORM lineto (%a,%0) 

100 NEXT a 

110 FOR b=0 TO 191 STEP 5 

120 PERFORM moveto (%139,%95) 

130 PERFORM lineto (%0, %b) 




PERFORM moveto(%139,%95) 
PERFORM lineto (%279, %b) 
FOR c=0 TO 27 9 STEP 5 
PERFORM pencolor {%v-l) 
PERFORM moveto (%139,%191) 
PERFORM lineto(%c, %95) 
PERFORM lineto(%139,%0) 
PERFORM xfroption(%6) : PERFORM fi 
GOTO 5 6 


Random Designs 
by Somvang Hansana 

Handsome shapes which look 

best on a color monitor. * 

Copyright (c) 198 6 by * 


10 ON ERR INVOKE" /basic/bgraf .inv" 

20 PERFORM initgrafix:OFF ERR 

25 PERFORM grafixmode (%1, %1) 

30 PERFORM fillport 

35 ON KBD GOTO 10 

40 PERFORM grafixon 

41 PERFORM moveto (%0,%0) 

42 PERFORM lineto (%279,%0) 

43 PERFORM lineto (%279,%191) 

44 PERFORM lineto (%0 , %191) 

45 PERFORM lineto (%0, %0) 

50 a=INT (RND (e) *f ) :b=lNT (RND (e) *g) 

60 C=INT (RND (e) *f ) :d=INT (RND (e) *g) 

70 IF e=0 THEN PERFORM grafixon 

80 e=l:f=279:g=191 

90 a=a+SGN(c-a) :b=b+SGN (d-b) 

100 PERFORM pencolor (%RND (1) *16) 

110 PERFORM moveto (%c, %d) 

120 PERFORM lineto (%a, %b) 

130 PERFORM moveto ( %f -c, %d) 

140 PERFORM lineto (%f-a, %b) 

150 PERFORM moveto (%c, %g-d) 

(Continued on p.19) 

December, 1 986 ON THREE 

Desktop Manager Module 

Hm harrington 

This is a sample module that shows how easy it is to write your own modules for the Desktop Manager. Plus 
you get a free screen dump routine that works under any existing program. 

Desktop Manager Screen Dump Module 
by Tim Harrington 

Copyright (c) 198 6 by ON THREE 

; The following is Header information. It must be present in all Desktop 

; Manager modules or they will not run. The header tells the Desktop Manager 

; what name it should put in the main menu and where to start running the code. 

;This tells the assembler 
;this code is not relocatable. 
;This tells the assembler this 
;is the beginning of source. 
;This tells the assembler this 
;code will always start at 
/location 3800 hex. 
;This tells the Desktop Manager 
;where to start running this 
/module . 

/Module name. The first byte 
;is equal to the number of 
/characters in the module ^s 
;name which follows. The name 
;must NOT exceed 14 characters. 







. Ascii 



"Screen Dump" 

EQU's and Macros follow 





D Status 



















SOS Open call number. 

SOS Read call number. 

SOS Write call number. 

SOS Close call number. 

SOS D Status call number, 


Cr Lf 





;This is a location in the 
/Desktop Manager that holds 
;the users printer driver name. 
;This is a location in the 
/Desktop Manager * s global page. 
; It tells you whether to use a 
/carriage return or a carriage 
/return + line feed. 

ON THREE December, 1 986 

Data for the Screen Dump module follows 

Following is the OPEN block which is used to open the printer so you can 
write to it. The PRINTER'S reference number is returned at Open_Ref erence , 
You will use this number to write to the PRINTER. 

/Parameter count. 
/Pointer to the pathname. 
/Reference number returned here 
/Option List pointer (none) . 
/Option List length (zero) . 

Following is the WRITE block which you will use to write to the printer. The 
Write_Reference you obtained from the Open call will tell SOS that you want 
to write to the PRINTER. 

Open Block 





Open Reference 







Write_Block .Byte 03 

Write_Ref erence .Byte 00 

.Word Character 

.Word 0001 

/ Parameter count . 
/Reference number from OPEN. 
/Pointer to data to write. 
/Number of characters to write, 
/You only want to write one 
/character at a time. 

Following is the WRITE block to the .CONSOLE that will tell the .CONSOLE 
to Goto an absolute specified X,Y location. 


Goto Reference 

.Byte 03 

.Byte 00 

. Word GotoXY_Buf f er 

.Word 0003 

GotoXY_Buffer .Byte 26, 

Y Position 



/Parameter count . 
/Reference number for .CONSOLE. 
/Pointer to data to write. 
/Number of characters to write. 

/Tells the .CONSOLE to use the 
/next 2 bytes as X^Y locations, 
/Goto column X. 
/Goto line Y. 

Following is the WRITE to the .CONSOLE to open the text window to encompass 
the entire screen. We do this in case the users screen was set up as a 
window smaller than the entire screen. 

Text Reference 


.Byte 03 

.Byte 00 

.Word Text 

.Word 0001 



/Parameter count. 
/Reference number for .CONSOLE, 
/Pointer to data to write. 
/Number of characters to write, 

/Writing a character 01 to the 
/screen will reset any 
/viewports already set up. 

Following is the D_STATUS block to the .CONSOLE that picks up the character 
at the current cursor position and puts it in Character. 

Get Device 









/ Parameter count . 
/Device number for .CONSOLE, 
/D_STATUS call number. 
/Point to data. 




/The character at the current 
/cursor position set by the 
/GotoXY write will be put 
/here . 

Following is the WRITE block which sends a return to the printer. It takes 
into account whether the user's printer needs a carriage return or carriage 
return + line feed. 

December, 1986 ON THREE 

/Parameter count. 
/Reference number for printer. 
;Data buffer pointer. 
_ _ /Number of characters to write, 

Following is the CLOSE call to the printer. Close the printer^ but not the 
.CONSOLE because the Desktop Manager closes the .CONSOLE. 

Cr Lf Block 



Cr Lf Reference 




Cr Lf+1 

Cr Lf Count 



Close_Block .Byte 01 
Close_Reference .Byte 00 

; Parameter count . 

/Reference number for printer. 

This is the beginning of the module 

The Desktop Manager passes the .CONSOLERS Reference number in the X Register, 
It also passes the .CONSOLERS Device number in the Y Register. 


STX Goto_Reference 
STX Text_Reference 
STY Get Device 

/Save for WRITE to the .CONSOLE 
/Save for TEXT to the .CONSOLE. 
/Save for D STATUS. 

With the statements below you will look into the Desktop Manager's vector 
page and get the address of the routine to restore the users screen. That 
way you can print what's under the Desktop Manager's menu box. Since this is 
only a location, you must patch a JSR to jump to it. The lines below do just 
that. First you get the location and then patch a JSR to jump to it. 

/First you get the address of 
/Desktop Manager's vector page. 
/Store it on the zero page so 
/you can use indirect 
/addressing. You must set up 
/your X-byte if you are going 
/to use indirect addressing. 

/Now you can get the address 
/of the restore routine and 
/patch your JSR. Use Y=2 
/because the restore vector 
/is the second one on the 
/vector page. 

/This has been patched so now 
/you can do it. 
/Set up Cr Lf_Count according 
/to what tTTe user wants. 

/Open the printer for writing. 

/Store the printer's reference 
/number for the writes. 

/Open screen window to 
/encompass the entire screen. 
/Set the printer's carriage to 
/a new line. 

/Initialize the indexes. 

















Cr Lf 


Open, Open Block 


Open Reference 
Write Reference 
Cr Lf Reference 


Write, Text_Bloc 


Write, Cr_Lf_Blo 





X Position 
Y Position 

/Set up X and Y for the 
/GotoXY write to the .CONSOLE. 


Write, GotoXY 

/Goto X Position, Y Position. 

ON THREE December, 1 986 



D_Status , Get_Cur s 










Write;- Write_Block 






Write, Cr_Lf_Block 








Close, Close_Block 



;Pick up character there. 

/Check to make sure character 

;is printable. 

/Strip high bit. 

;Is it a control character? 

;If no, save as is. 

;If yes, change it to a space. 

Print the character to the 

printer . 

Increment column count. 

Are we at the right-hand 

edge of the screen? 

If no, goto next column. 

If yes, send return to 
Next line . 
Column zero . 

Are you at the bottom of the 


If no, print next line. 

If yes, you^re done! Close 
off the printer . 
/Return to the Desktop Manager, 


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December, 1 986 ON THREE 

Graphics Manager 

John r. sollman 

Graphics Manager is the latest in ON THREE'S line 
of Desktop Manager modules. When I acquired my 
Apple /// (all of 128K) in late 1982, one of my 
objectives was to have graphics capability. Much of 
my work at that time required I prepare statistical 
reports in tabular and graphic form. My first printer, a 
daisy wheel Brother HR-1, was nice, but slow. At a 
computer show in June 1984, I found my present 
printer, a Fujitsu DPL-24. This printer has 
tremendous graphics capability and produces letter- 
quality text at high speeds. At the same time, my 
Apple /// dealer was liquidating some of his software 
stock, and I bought a copy of Business Graphics for a 
mere $50. 

Then the bubble burst. Much to my chagrin, I learned 
Business Graphics is quite limited in the printer 
support. Not even the Printer Interface Kit (PIK) 
program, which Business and Professional Software 
developed to add new printers to the Business 
Graphics SYSTEM.LIBRARY file, contains routines 
which support the Fujitsu. Unbeknownst to me, at the 
very time I was buying all this hardware and software, 
corporate Apple was busily engaged in abandoning its 
loyal /// users. So much for any hope of having new 
printers supported by Business Graphics or any other 
graphics program. 

Then, one fine day (Puccini lovers, please pardon the 
pun), ON THREE asked me for my printer codes so 
Mel Astrahan could include the Fujitsu with the other 
printers supported by Graphics Manager. At long last, 
graphics capability was almost within my grasp! Sure 
enough, a few weeks later, I received from Mel 
Graphics Manager Version 2.11, some documentation 
and a request that I test the program on the Fujitsu and 
forward the results. After correcting the routine for 
line feed, Mel sent me another diskette, this time 
Version 2.2a. It worked like a charm! My initial goal 
of having graphics capability with my Apple /// was 
finally realized. Version 2.2a supported the Fujitsu in 
its low resolution (90x90) dot density mode. After I 
had essentially finished my review of the product for 
ON THREE, Mel sent me Version 2.4 which 
supports the Fujitsu in its high resolution (180x180) 
dot density mode. Anyone out there who has shared 
my experience, take heart! There is hope yet for those 
of us Corporate Apple abandoned. 

In a later conversation, Mel discussed the philosophy 
behind the development of Graphics Manager. When 
Apple Computer abandoned the /// and with it many 
Apple /// users, most software developers ceased 
further research and development on products for the 
Apple ///. This left many Apple /// owners who had 
purchased one of the newer, state-of-the-art printers 
facing the bleak realization that they probably would 
never be able to use the Apple ///'s tremendous 
graphics capability. But their prayers were answered 
when Mel Astrahan and ON THREE developed the 
Graphics Manager program. 

Not only do we have Graphics Manager, but Color 
Graphics Manager as well. Color Graphics Manager 
now supports four printers: Epson's JX80, the 
Image Writer 2, IDS' TF132, and IBM's Color Printer. 
It also provides a palette of bold colors and soft pastels 
to print enhanced graphics on color printers. Color 
Graphics Manager is not the same as Graphics 
Manager in that it does not handle monochrome 
images. Mel stated there is insufficient buffer space to 
handle both monochrome and color in a single Color 
Graphics Manager package. 

Graphics Manager is a utility which allows you to 
manipulate and then print a graphics screen created by 
another program. It is really a dual package. One side 
of the disk contains an interpreter which can be booted 
directly or installed in Catalyst or Selector /// and on the 
other side is the Desktop Manager version of Graphics 
Manager. I evaluated the program in its Desktop 
version, although I intend to install it in Catalyst as 

This article evaluates Version 2.2a, an interim version 
in which the dot density had been set to support low 
resolution graphics on the Fujitsu. Mel said releasing 
this type of intermediate program is often a necessary 
to determine which codes support which printer 
functions, a lamentable situation attributable to the 
sorry condition of the documentation accompanying 
most foreign-manufactured equipment and much 
hardware and software produced right here at home. 
(What wouldn't we give to have Japanese manu- 
facturers hire a competent, native-American-EngUsh- 
speaking technical writer to prepare the documentation 
to support their excellent products? How many of us 

ON THREE December. 1986 


have encountered printer manuals which speak of the 
"printer becoming in the deselect condition" following 
the occurrence of some equally ill-defined event?) 
After I had already evaluated all of the features of 
Graphics Manager Version 2.2a, Mel sent me Version 
2.4, which supports the Fujitsu in its high resolution 

Installing Graphics Manager as a Desktop Manager 
utility is probably easiest. Simply copy the files, 
.MENU and DMG.INST from the Desktop side of the 
diskette to the Desktop subdirectory on the hard disk, 
and then copy the fonts from the Interpreter side to a 
fonts subdirectory. The installation disk also contains 
one foto file which may be copied to the hard disk. 
The foto file is provided so people without libraries of 
graphics material can learn to use Graphics Manager. 
Other foto files may be found on the RAM Disk Demo 
which comes with ON THREE'S 512K Memory 

The .GRAFIX driver must be present whenever you 
use Graphics Manager. If you have Catalyst Version 
2.0 or later, just dynamically load .GRAFIX for any 
programs with which you intend to use Graphics 
Manager as a background utility. For my evaluation, I 
dynamically loaded the .GRAFIX driver into Word 

System Configuration 

You must do several things to make Graphics Manager 
work with your system. First, select a printer driver 
and a printer configuration. To do this, toggle OPEN- 
APPLE-D through the Hst of available drivers and 
OPEN-APPLE-P through the printer families to find 
the right settings for your prin-ter. As of this writing, 
Graphics Manager supports 34 printer families 
including the Fujitsu. Printers now supported include 
the Apple DMP, ImageWriter, C. Itoh 8510, 
ProWriter, NEC 8023, Epson MX, FX, RX, JX80, 
IBM Star, OkiData ML92/93, IDS Prism P132, Fujitsu 
DPL-24, Hewlett Packard Think Jet and Genie Star 

Just to make things a little easier, you should also set a 
pathname prefix (Option 6) for loading foto files. 
Many people using graphics store foto files or screen 
files in one specific subdirectory. Using the path-name 
prefix, Graphics Manager can be set to automatically 
load from and store to this same sub-directory. Foto 
files can be loaded from any other subdirectory simply 
by entering the complete pathname. Because the 
pathname length for fonts and foto files is Hmited, you 
should keep your directory and subdirectory names as 
short as possible. Otherwise, it may be cumbersome 

to load certain files and impossible to load certain 

If you want to enter text, alone or in combination with 
graphic data, you must load a font first. To do this, 
select Option 8 and choose a font by entering the 
complete pathname. The current font, indicated at the 
bottom of the menu, may be changed at any time while 
you are running Graphics Manager. Once you've 
completed your configuration, select Option 7 from the 
menu to save it. Now you are ready to print graphics. 

To print a graphic image, either load an existing image 
or create a text image, then identify the part of the 
graphic image you want to print. To do this, go to the 
Graphics Screen and "open" the cursor around the part 
of the image you want. Next, go to the Paper 
Template screen and specify the size of the image and 
its location by opening the cursor to create a rectangle 
and placing the rectangle where you want the picture to 
appear on your printed copy. Return to the menu and 
select Option 2 (print). That's all there is to it. 

Your printer and Graphics Manager must be 
synchronized to print the graphic image in the correct 
location on the paper. Graphics Manager does not 
communicate directly with the printer to determine the 
vertical positioning of the print head. Instead, the 
program uses a Paper Template preset to paper sizes of 
8 1/2" X 11" and 11" X 14". Graphics Manager marks 
the top of the page on its Paper Template with a line, 
called the synchronization line, and assumes the 
printer's head is also at the top of its page. For each 
line of data sent to the printer, Graphics Manager 
advances its mock printer line proportionally and 
assumes the printer is advancing its printing head to the 
same Hne as well. 

To synchronize your printer's head with Graphics 
Manager's synchronization line, move the synchro- 
nization line so it corresponds with the actual vertical 
position of your printer's head. For example, if the 
print head is at the top of the form, move the 
synchronization line to the top of the Paper Template. 
If the print head is two inches below the top of the 
form, move the synchronization line two inches from 
the top of the Paper Template and place your image on 
the template accordingly. The Paper Template is 
gridded with dots one inch apart vertically and hori- 
zontally, which greatly simplifies placing images on 
the template with respect to the synchronization line. If 
you set the synchronization correctly, Graphics 
Manager will print the graphic image on your paper 
exactly where it appears on the Paper Template. 

For printers without reverse line feed, all printing must 
start below the synchronization Hne. But, printers with 


December, 1986 ON THREE 

reverse line feed (indicated by * in the manual) may 
begin printing above or below the synchronization 
line. If you tell a reverse feed printer to being printing 
an image which is above the synchronization line on 
the template, the printer will reverse to the top of the 
paper and print the image. If a regular printer was 
commanded to do the same thing with the 
synchronization line half-way down the page, it would 
advance to a new page before printing the image. 

To print a graphic image, load a foto file using Option 
1 from the menu. Then go to the Graphics Screen by 
selecting Option 3 from the menu, or by simply 
pressing ENTER. The image you loaded will already 
be on that screen. The cursor is a very fine cross 
which is used to identify the portion of the image you 
want to print. To do this, move the cursor to the 
upper-left comer of the print window. Press OPEN- 
APPLE-C to toggle the cursor to its open mode. 
Once in this mode, the cursor is the lower-right comer 
of the print window. Moving the cursor opens it, 
creating a rectangle. Whatever you frame with the 
rectangle will be printed. Once you have everything 
you want to print framed, press OPEN-APPLE-C to 
lock the size of the rectangle. Graphics Manager also 
supports a mouse and joystick. Once locked, it can 
still be moved by using the arrow keys, the mouse or 
the joystick. You can position images and open the 
cursor much faster with the mouse than with the arrow 
keys. Those who are blessed with either will be able 
to manipulate the cursor quite rapidly. If you are an 
arrow-key type like me, manipulating the cursor takes 
a bit longer. 

Pressing the decimal point on the numeric keypad 
brings up the Paper Template. Move the cursor to the 
upper left corner of the location where you'd like your 
image printed. Press OPEN-APPLE-C to open the 
cursor and move it to where you want your image's 
lower-right corner to be. As on the Graphics Screen, 
the cursor opens to form a rectangle. OPEN- 
APPLE-C again locks the rectangle. 

If you want your image to appear exacdy as you 
framed it on the Graphics Screen, you must maintain 
the same aspect ratio between the two rectangles. 
Aspect ratio is simply the relationship between the the 
two rectangles' length and height. For example, if the 
rectangle you drew on the Graphics Screen has a 
length of 2" and a height of 3", then the rectangle you 
draw on the Paper Template must be proportional, 
having perhaps a length of 1" and a height of 1.5". To 
guarantee a reasonably correct aspect ratio, extend the 
cursor to the upper-right comer of the rectangle on the 
template and press A. The rectangle will automatically 
open to the correct aspect ratio. I found that the aspect 
ratio of the image on the screen was accurately 
reproduced by my Fujitsu. A good way to check the 

aspect ratio is to press OPEN-APPLE-V. This lets 
you view the image in low resolution at its location on 
the Paper Template. If the aspect ratio appears 
incorrect, widen or deepen the image as needed by 
opening and moving the cursor. 

Among the images I used to test Graphics Manager 
was a pie chart I created in Business Graphics. I 
achieved a slightly better aspect ratio by manually 
matching aspect ratios, paper to graph. The numbers at 
the top of the Paper Template indicate how close you 

Now that you've correctly sized and positioned your 
graphic image on the Paper Template, you can print it 
by pressing on the numeric keypad, to return to the 
menu, and selecting Option 2. If your ribbon is wom, 
you may wish to darken the image by pressing OPEN- 
APPLE-K before printing. This command tells the 
printer to double-strike each dot printed. When you're 
ready to print, press RETURN and your image will 
be printed according to your specifications. 

Graphics Manager will print an image of practically any 
size, at any location and at four different rotations (0, 
90, 180 and 270 degrees). There are, however, printer- 
imposed limitations. Enlargements of the image can be 
done without losing information and are handled quite 
well, but reductions are limited in computer graphics 
by the number of dots it takes to produce a readable 
image and the number of dots a printer can put into a 
given area. As material is reduced beyond a certain 
point, information is lost, most noticeably in text. So, 
if you plan to use images containing text, keep this 
limit in mind. If you demand clarity, it is generally 
better to create as large an image as possible. 

Generally, graphic material is added to a word 
processing document after the text has already been 
printed. You just leave a hole in the typed copy for 
your graphic image. To mesh text and graphics 
successfully, after printing the text, determine the size 
of the graphic image and the precise coordinates of the 
upper-left corner. Always remember to maintain a 
proper aspect ratio. Reload the paper with the text into 
the printer, or back it up to where you want the first 
graphic image printed. Using the Paper Template, set 
the synchronization line and the position and size the 
graphic image. Now print. If you have correctly 
determined the size and location of the graphic image 
on the Paper Template, the image will be printed in the 
space you left for it on the paper form. You may now 
proceed to the next page on which you want an image 
printer and repeat the process, remembering to set the 
synchronization line. I prefer to set the print head and 
the synchronization line at the top of the form, since 
this is the position from which I start printing all 

ON THREE December, 1 986 


0? a 



\m. m. 

1ST and 2HD Quarter.. 


The command structure of Graphics Manager is 
somewhat different from that of the other Desktop 
Manager modules but is similar to Draw On ///'s. The 
cursor keys move the cursor one pixel at a time, while 
the cursor and shift key pressed simultaneously moves 
the cursor seven pixels left or right, and eight pixels up 
or down. The Alphalock key locks the cursor to X or 
Y, according to the Paper Template cursor aspect ratio. 
The A key automatically adjusts the print window to 
the correct aspect ratio, and the R key rotates the image 
in 90 degree increments. Using the Open- Apple key in 
combination with another key toggles the cursor open 
or closed, selects the printer family, selects the text 
mode, draws a box in text mode, toggles the eraser on 
and off, sets the synchronization markers on the Paper 
Template, sets the fill color, etc. The only Closed- 
Apple command in Graphics Manager closes the 

Double-Apple commands are used to erase the 
Graphics Screen or Paper Template, clean up Apple //e 
files, copy the graphic window from the Paper 
Template to the Graphics Screen, shift 8K segments, 
expand 8K graphics to 16K graphics, reverse joystick 
direction, set graphics mode and quit. Control-Key 
commands are used to edit the pathname. Use 
CONTROL-E to erase the complete pathname. 
CONTROL-LEFT-ARROW erases the character to 

the left of the cursor, while CONTROL-K erases 
everything to the right. CONTROL-U restores the 
default entry. 

Graphics Manager can also scan a directory. Simply 
use the arrow key to select a file to load. Press UP- 
ARROW and a pop-up directory, similar to the pop- 
up directories in System Utilities, appears. Unlike 
System Utilities, you select a file with the Return key, 
not the Right- Arrow. When you select a file, the name 
of the selected file is appended to the foto file pathname 
shown in the menu. Pressing RETURN again loads 
the file. 

In Graphics Manager, you may use the menu to select 
either the Graphics Screen or Paper Template, but there 
is an easier way. Summon the Graphics Screen by 
pressing ENTER and the Paper Template by pressing 
the decimal point on the numeric keypad. Pressing the 
key on the numeric keypad retums you to the menu. 
This arrangement gives you considerable flexibility in 
arranging a graphic image for printing because it 
permits free movement between all three screens. In 
addition, Graphics Manager allows you to move a 
graphic image or a portion thereof to the Paper 
Template, change its size or aspect ratio, and copy it 
back to the Graphics Screen. This in effect creates a 
new image which you can saved to disk for use later. 


December, 1986 ON THREE 

Graphics Manager is configured to handle 16K Apple 
/// foto files. However, the program will load 
practically any binary file with a graphics image, 
including Apple ][ and // e graphics as well as Print 
Shop Graphic and Screen Magic files. (It will not 
handle Springboard, however.) To test this capa- 
bility, I loaded Business Graphics' Start Up Screen, 
an 8K Pascal screen data file. If you load any file 
which is not a foto file, Graphics Manager gives a 
warning when it detects the file type. Pressing 
RETURN clears the warning and loads the file. 
Pressing ENTER (or Menu Cation 3) brings up the 
Graphics Screen. The Business Graphics Startup 
Screen image was displayed, but with vertical stripes. 
I pressed DOUBLE-APPLE-0 to convert the 8K 
graphic information to 16K, the stripes disappeared 
and a perfect image was displayed! I saved the screen 
as a foto file and later successfully reloaded it. 

To load DOS 3.3 files, precede the pathname with an 
asterisk, which acts as a switch to invoke certain 
routines necessary for the conversion. For Print Shop 
Graphic files, which are stored in four sectors on disk, 
Graphics Manager converts to 560 x 192 graphics and 
loads the image to the cursor location on the Graphics 
Screen. The 8K Screen Magic files are loaded and 
then converted to 16K graphics if you press 
DOUBLE-APPLE-0. Other routines are available 
to load and clean up Apple //e PRODOS graphics files. 

Graphics Manager prints exactly what is on the screen. 
The black screen is printed as black, and the green 
portions as white. In its initial form, the Business 
Graphics Startup Screen is displayed as green (white) 
images on a black background. Printing the screen 
produces white information on a black background, 
exacdy as it appears on the screen. If you would rather 
print the information in black with a white background, 
simply press OPEN-APPLE-N while in the 
Graphics Screen to invert the coloration. The image 
changes from having a black background to green, 
with the information now displayed in black. The 
program will now print black information on a white 

My printer has reverse line feed capability so I am able 
to print numerous images on a single page without 
resynchronizing the printer. I printed four images of 
the Business Graphics Startup Screen on a single piece 
of paper, each in a different rotation, and a slightly 
larger image centered at the bottom. This was all done 
without resetting the synchronization. After printing 
the first image, the synchronization line was at the 
bottom of the rectangle on the Paper Template. Using 
the OPEN-APPLE-> key, I moved the rectangle to 
the right and inverted it 180 degrees. When printing 
the second image, the printer reverse-fed the paper 
back to the top of the form, then advanced the paper to 
the top of the image and printed. I repeated these steps 

ON THREE December, 1 986 


ON THRe€ Presents... 

The Desktop Manager' 

by Rob Turner ond Bob Consorti 

• The most complete and sophisticated • For once and for oil, unclutter your desk 

desk accessory program ever uuritten! the Desktop Monoger uuay! 






Note Pad 
Macro Manager 
















Desktop Setup 






1 14 



1 43 

10BS f!1?<} 


I t 





1 1 I'z^ m 










h 5 4^7 40''4 






1997 274 ''374 




17 2 183 31<1 







91 3108 

Desktop Manager main menu, 
shown overriding a spreadsheet. 

Running in the background, the Desktop Manager places all of the desk 
accessory utilities you ever wanted. . .Appointment Calendar. . . Notepad 
. . .Calculator. . .Disk Utilities. . .Macros. . .Graphics. . .Games. . . and 
more, into each program you own, just like they were part of it. Instantly 
available from /// £-Z Pieces, VisiCalc, AppleWriter, BPI, and all other 
programs, the Desktop Manager will clear your desk pronto. 

What is ''Running in the background?" It is sinnplyaprogrann that, unlike nnost, ''hides" 
fronn you. You are never aware of its presence, but when you need it, it is "Johnny on the spot" 
ready to serve you at the touch of a key 

While word processing, have you ever needed to multiply two numbers? 
Perturbed because you have a few thousand dollars worth of computer equipment 
at your fingertips and still can 't multiply two figures when you want to? Or, 
you're entering data in a spreadsheet and can't fnd either a scratchpad or 
a pen to jot down a note. While you're digging under piles of paperwork, 
you probably mutter something unprintable under your breath. 

Perhaps you're entering text in a word processor document and decide 
it's time to do your first file save, but you can't remember if the fie name 
you want to use already exists. Too bad the word processor has no 
provision to catalog a disk. Similarly, you may need to save a fie and 
discover that you don't have a disk with enough room left on it. You have 

plenty of blank, unformatted disks. If you exit the program to use the 
System Utilities to format a disk, all of your work will be lost. 

Does this describe your situation? How about clearingyour desk of 
that old-fashioned calculator, the pens and paper, your appointment 
calendar and increase your productivity? The Desktop Manager from 
ON THREE will do these things and a great deal more. From within any 
program, a keypress will override your current application and display a 
window into the Desktop Manager. At this point you have the entire 
facilities of the Desktop Manager at your beck and call. You can 
pause whatever you are presently doing, and select any of the following 

File^ Dealer Listing 
Selection All records 




AC3 Co 




AC3 Co 





Qlensky Brothers 

Computer Uoncepti.. 

Ray Davis i Conpany 


Use Up And Doun Arrous To 
Highlight Desired Topic Then 
Press RETURN To Uiew The 

Editing Connands 
Cursor Connands 
Print Connan' 

Escape : Main Menu 


Kay ya' 


NotePad main help menu, 

superimposed on a NotePad memo 

and a database. 

File^ Dealer Listing 
Selection: ftu records 

Escape: fjain Menu 

Appointment Calendar I 
13 May 86 12:45 24PM 

11:30 AM 1214 PM 

Open Apple "? Key For Help. 



_ _ ins Connunicatons 1009 West Jackson St. Denopolis 

Type entry or use d connands d-"' for Hei 

Appointment Calendar primary display. 

File: Dealer Listing 


Selection All records 


dA ='' 
dM =) 


General Connands: 

Add Another Note 
Backs Up to Previous Note 
Moves to the Next Note 
Shous Note Selection Menu 
'.Help Provided in Menu) 
Allow Renaning Active Note 
Find Text Within Note 
Moves the Note Pad Window 
(Pressing Escape Mill 
Restore Window Contents.^ 



Note Pa 

Published wateri 
Sparks.. Dauid: P 




, Brother; _ 

i[ m^ 

Conputer Uoncepts, Inc. 

Ray Davis i Company 

Collins Cosnunicdtons 

287 Br. '^ ' 

1099 We 

adS! Seima 
st .Jackson A. Jenicpolis 

I m 

NotePad secondary help menu, 

superimposed on a NotePad memo 

and a database. 

I flppointnent At 12 14 PI1 

The Appointnent ^o the ler'. .i dje. 
Press ESCAPE to exit or RETURN to e 
the Appointment Calendar. 



Appointment Calendar event, showing 
an appointment that has just come due. 

The Note Pad: A powerful and easy to use 
work processor It lets you jot down notes for 
quick reference while you are entering data or 
for later viewing. No need to type in a fie name. 
The Notepad does it for you, automatically. 
Multiple pages per note, plus the sophisticated 
features of word-wrap, automatic repagination, 
copying and more gives you the power of a word 
processor — available in an instant — from what- 
ever program you are using. Instant on-line help 
screens (a feature of all Desktop Manager 
modules) make The Notepad easier to use 
than many word processors. 

The Appointment Calendar: 

A time scheduling productivity tool that allows 
you to set multiple appointments for any day 
throu^ December 31st 1999. These "Appoint- 
ment Events" automatically notify you of your 
next appointment. From within any program, 
no matter what you are doing, the Appointment 
Calendar will pop up on your screen and display 
your next appointment. The day and week at a 
glance features show the appointments for a 
single day or an entire week It also provides an 
easy way to set your system clock Full help 
screens compliment this handy and easy to use 
perpetual calendar 

The Calculator: 

An extremely powerful electronic workhorse. Full 1 6-digit accuracy and nnultiple functions like: SIN, 
CO^AN, log's, natural LOG's, xtoa power, square roots and nnore. In addition to the basic add, 
subtract nnultiply and divide. The Calculator features e, pi, degrees and radians, nnemory, base 
conversions fronn decimal to hex or binary and back again, a simulated scrolling paper tape, 
hardcopy printing and of course, on-line help screens. 

The Calculator, with paper tape showing last calculations.! 

Mie Pep F.rm ii:t 



Selection All r 

1 ^-^l^^l^^^'^ ' , 

OEHLER 1 ;" 

10 011 

REP rpH-llicr: M; | 


REP F PM-Pii.ett 

REP F RM-^ R 11 Hip 


Cos][Tan][Pi ][ e ] 

'^.EP F fM-i: L narl 

Ln ][»•-!][ jtirPinl 

REP F RM-lirr^ ila D" 

E ][ F " 

REP F'RM-^ P I 1 H 

REP F'RH-L - 1 : 

REP F Rtl-tLiI Gro 4 

REP F RM Clothie : 

[ ; ¥' ' 

gp^rn "«.-«, 

REP F :pi-; [; ; : 

5:1 t;;- T 

.Hkneld ::pr 

The basic Desktop Manager comes complete with oil the above features 
and more! For the first time, Desktop Manager lets you use a mouse from 
within any program, even those not designed for a mouse. You will be able to use 
the mouse to move the cursor and the mouse button doubles as the FSCAPE or 
RETURN key The Desktop Manager also offers the ClipBoard for infomnation 
transfer With the ClipBoard, you can transfer information from one screen or 
program to another Say you are using the Calculator to do some calculations 
and want to transfer the result into your word processor You can simply cut 
from the calculator and paste it into your program. Likewise, you can move an 
entire section of text from your program to the notepad or vice-versa. 

In addition, if you are running with Selector /// or Catalyst, you can also 
transfer directly from one application to another After you have used the 

ClipBoard to transfer some information, you can return to your previous 
application by simply pressing Escape, and the cursor will even be exactly 
where you left it 

With our no-nonsense installation program, a few simple keypresses will 
quickly install the Desktop Manager on all of your application programs. 
No need to use the System Confguration Program, Desktop Manager does it 
all for you, and automatically! All Desktop Manager A/lodu /es have movable 
windows that can be placed anywhere on the screen that they will fit 

The complete packa^ indudes all of the features described above and a 1 10 poge 
User's Guide that shows clearly how to use each fjnaion of the various Desktop 
Manager modules. Priced at only $129 plus $6 shipping, the Desktop 
Manager is the best thing to happen to the Apple /// in a long, long time. 

Disk Manager: 

Provides the most frequently used features of the 
Apple /// System Utilities program. Formatting disks, 
listing, copying, deleting and renaming files and 
more ore all available, at the touch of a button. 
Never again will you have to lose data when you 
need to exit a program to format a blank disk. On- 
line help screens and standard Desktop Manager 
"Ease of use" makes the $44.95 (and $3 shipping) 
price a steal. 

Optional Desktop Monoger Modules Rvoilable Noui! 


File Depreciation . REViEW-'rtDD'CHHN&E _ ^f^af -:_J1d, 


3isk f1ana9er 
Format Oisk 

Use this option tc fornat a disk. At the first proupt, 
in the naxe of the device thai: :cn'. = :r.; -. :..-k you war 
to fornat and press RtTUPH. At the second pronpt, type 
the nane 'jou yant to Qi^'e the disk and pre;; RETURN 

Main menu of the Disk Manager 

Macro Manager: 

Allows you to define a single keypress as a series of keystrokes to be played back at your command. Our 
innovative Record Macro mode lets you record a series of keystrokes — over 2000, if you want — h^t while you type 
them in response to prompts, etc, in an applications program. After you have finished choosing from your applications 
menu, you can go right back to the Macro Manager and assign the previously recorded keystrokes to a single 
maao definition. Up to 50 different definitions can be assigned to a single macro set Each set of macros is called a 
MacroMap^'* and over 200 different MacroMaps, which can be modified with additions and deletions, etc, can 
be selected from an easy to use menu. The Macro Manager allows you to copy macros from one key to another 
and to exchange or re-assign macro keystrokes. All of this and more for only $44.95 plus $3 shipping. 

"Format a Disk" option of the Disk Manager 

Macro Hanaqer 1 


eypad Det 

Help Menu l_ 
" MacroMap Conpand Sunnary^ 


SA = Add a Neu MacroMap 
dB - Moye Back One MacroMap 
dC = Copy Current MacroMap 
30 = Delete Highlighted Macro 
iH ^ Move to Next MacroMac 
i? - Paste a Recorded Macro 
cJR - Renaie Current MacroMap 
dS ^ 'Show MacroMaps 
C?; = Exchange Macros 
Return ^ Show Highlighted Macro 

1 1 


_| d^ = Help jL 


HacroHaP ' 1-2 Pieces Hacros 

ASCII Chart: 

Lists, in an easy to understand table, the decimal and hexadecimal values for all 
ASCII characters. A second screen features a keypress table that shows exactly 
which keys to press for different ASCI I codes. The keypress table can be a lifesaver 
when you need to know what commands to send to a printer, or to an applications 
program, to enable different printing modes such as bold, italic, compressed phnt, 
etc Only $9. 95 plus $3 shipping. As an extra bonus, the source code is included on 
the disk. 

The Macro Manager's help menu, 
Mr. SandMan: displayed over a MacroMap^" 

A fast-moving multi-level, fjll-color arcade game that you can play at any time. 
As a Desktop Manager background module, whenever you need a break from 
the tedium of entering data into your present application, you can instantly "take 
five" to team Mr SandMan up with the wandering WOZand eat up those nasty 
jObs in this challenging and amusing game. For only $29.95 and $3 shipping, you will 
receive both the Desktop Manager and stand-alone versions. The standalone 
version allows you to play Mr.Sand Man even if you don't have the Desktop Manager 

Rvoilable Nouil 

Graphics Manager™ and Color Graphics Manager"" 

Send graphic images you create with any Apple III or Apple lie program to 
your printer Insert a picture in the middle of your word processing document at 
any point, in any size with Graphics Manager's automatic rotation and image 
enlargingi shrinking features. Layout newsletters, combining text and graphics 
on the same page. Create a personalized letterhead with Draw ON and use the 
Graphics Manager to merge it with your word processing document. The Color 
Graphics Manager supports the ImageWriterll, IDS Color Prism, Epson JXand 
the IBM PC Color Printer and works with any interface card and graphics- 
compatible printer 

The Desktop Manager 

requires an Apple /// with 
256K or 5I2K of memory 
and an external disk drive of 
any type or capacity The 
Appointment Event feature 
requires an ON THREE 
O'clock, an Apple Clock 
or compatible Apple /// 
clock chip. The Desktop 
Manager uses between 32 
and 40K of memory. 

Desktop Monoger $129.00 

plus $6 s/h 

Disk Monoger $44.9b 

plus $3 s/h 
Mocro Monoger $44.95 

plus $3 s/h 
ASCII Chort $9.95 

plus $3 s/h 
Mr. Sondmon $29.95 

plus $3 s/h 

for the second two images. In creating the fifth image, 
I enlarged it slightly and printed it centered at the 
bottom of the page. 

As a further test of the program's ability, I entered 
some data in Business Graphics and created a bar and a 
pie chart. I saved the graphics screens, reloaded them 
into Graphics Manager and resaved them as foto files. 
Because I allocated 16K for graphics memory, the files 
were correctly loaded and I had no need for DOUBLE- 
APPLE-0 to convert them as with the Startup Screen. 
I printed a bar graph to determine whether the fully 
open cursor would include all the information in the 
graph. It did. I used the pie chart to see how well 
Graphics Manager preserved aspect ratios and found 
that I could better the automatic ratio by manually 
matching the paper to graph ratios. When I reduced 
the charts, I immediately noticed the limitations 
inherent in reducing computer graphics. The charts 
printed well, but some of the accompanying text 
became unreadable. 

However, Mel solved this problem for me. I had been 
using Version 2.2a of Graphics Manager, which 
supported low resolution (90 x 90 dots) on the Fujitsu. 
After I had completed my evaluation. Version 2.4 of 
Graphics Manager arrived. This version supports the 
Fujitsu's high resolution capability, and therefore 
permits much greater reduction without losing 
information. With Version 2.4, the Fujitsu can print 
fully readable charts and graphs at reductions suitable 
for inclusion with the text of research papers or 
reports. I reduced a bar graph occupying the entire 
Graphics Screen to 3.5" X 4" on paper without any 
loss of detail or clarity. I must emphasize that the 
image's clarity on paper is strictly a function of the 
printer. For each printer supported, Graphics Manager 
is configured to obtain the maximum resolution 

To support printer functions, Graphics Manager has 
seven pages of buffer space available to it. For ultra- 
high resolution dot matrix printers, this may not be 
enough space to print a graphic image 14" wide. As it 
is presently designed, Graphics Manager dynamically 
monitors the use of available buffer space. When the 
image is too wide for the buffer, it is simply truncated 
at the maximum available width consistent with the 
printer's dot resolution. The Fujitsu DPL-24, which 
supports high resolution graphics at 180 X 180 dots 
per inch, would be able to print an image 
approximately nine inches wide. The Hewlett-Packard 
Think Jet, at 190 dots, would be limited to a slighdy 
narrower image. There is no limitation as to the height 
of the image, just the width. As an owner of a high 
resolution printer, I am more interested in printing 
acceptable images at significant levels of reduction than 
in printing the largest image possible. 

Graphics Manager has another rather interesting 
feature: the cursor is entirely independent of the 
Graphics Screen. If the cursor is opened to include the 
entire screen, as for reproducing charts and graphs, the 
same open cursor is available for each graph loaded 
after the first. The same is true of the open cursor on 
the Paper Template. This means that once you 
determine the size of the graphic window and the size 
of the graph on the printed page, all you need do is 
position the existing rectangle on the Paper Template 
and set the synchronization line for each new graph 
you want to print. 

Text may be entered in eight different modes and in 
any font available to the system. The eight text modes 
produce various overlays of print and background. 
You may change fonts at any time while entering text. 
Simply retum to the menu and select another font from 
those available in the fonts subdirectory. You can even 
enclose your text in a box if you wish. Just open the 
cursor around the text, invert the text within the cursor, 
open a larger cursor around the inverted text and invert 
again. This produces a border around the text of any 
thickness desired. Another way to box text is to go to 
the menu and toggle the text mode to "black invert," 
return to the Graphics Screen, open the cursor around 
the text and press OPEN-APPLE-B. Then, when 
you close the cursor, a box appears around the text. 

Graphics Manager offers some interesting possibilities. 
For instance, if you are blessed with a reverse line feed 
printer, you can easily print letterheads and logos at the 
top documents. Simply load your graphics, select the 
print window and position it on the Paper Template. 
When setting the size of the print window, remember 
to allow a lot of white space below the letterhead or 
logo. Then, when you print the material, abort the 
print after the graphic image has been completely 
printed, but while the printer is still "printing" white 
lines. The printer will reverse feed to the top of the 
form, and you are ready to print your word processing 


This is a relatively inexpensive ($49.95 plus $3 s/h) 
and extremely powerful package. It can be used as a 
stand-alone graphics manager or as a part of the 
Desktop Manager. The program is most flexible when 
used as a Desktop Manager module, because it can 
then be invoked from within any program for which 
the .GRAFIX driver is present. The presence of 
routines to handle DOS 3.3 and Apple //e PRODOS 
files opens a vast library of graphics material to Apple 
/// users who may not wish to create their own 
graphics. All this for only $49.95! 


December, 1986 ON THREE 

As for its overall performance with graphic material, I 
find the sizing and positioning of graphic images quite 
precise. The automatic aspect ratio is adequate for 
most material, but for pie charts, slightly greater 
accuracy in matching aspect ratio is achievable 
manually. The Graphics Manager command structure 
is complete and well conceived, although using 
DOUBLE-APPLE-Q instead of ESCAPE to quit 
takes some adjusting. I do not own any Apple ][ or //e 
graphics, so I could not test the program's ability to 
handle that kind of material. Judging from the 
excellent way the program handled 16K foto files and 
the 8K Apple /// Business Graphics Startup Screen, I 
have no reason to doubt its ability to perform as 
claimed in every respect. 

Rarely have I encountered a product which I like as 
well as Graphics Manager. Graphics Manager has 
enabled me to use Business Graphics, which I 
purchased two years ago but have never been able to 
print. In fact, this utility allows far greater flexibility 
in locating and printing graphic information than is 
directly available from within Business Graphics 
itself! Graphics Manager will let you printing pictures 
of almost any size. You're limited only by your 

In my evaluation of Graphics Manager, there seemed 
very little to be desired. Still, I have a few druthers. 
Since I am not a Mouser, I would appreciate a 
command allowing immediate selection of the entire 
Graphic Screen as the window for printing. It would 

be convenient to have a command which would center 
the print rectangle horizontally on the Paper Template, 
and another which would center it vertically. I must 
say, however, that this really would be "frosting on the 
cake" for a well-designed program. 

The documentation provided me to test the program 
was in the process of being edited and rewritten. For 
the most part it was clear, although there was one 
omission in the section which tells how to create the 
box around text. The documentation I was given 
doesn't mention the need to go to the "black invert" text 
mode before using OPEN-APPLE-B to make the 
box, or the need to close the cursor after making the 
box if other material is to be included in the print 

Mel Astrahan indicated that his initial design 
philosophy was to create a program which would not 
be so complex that it would intimidate a person with no 
experience in using computer graphics. In my opinion, 
he certainly achieved this goal. The Graphics Manager 
brings the ability to print graphics within the grasp of 
every Apple /// owner. While I was happy with the 
bargain price and performance of the basic Desktop 
Manager package, I am absolutely ecstatic about 
Graphics Manager. It has opened a whole new world 
for me. My next purchase will be Draw On ///. With 
the combination of Business Graphics, Draw On /// and 
Graphics Manager, my Apple /// will finally have the 
graphics capability I have long dreamed of. 


(Continued from p.6) 


PERFORM lineto (%a,%g-b) 



graf ixmode (%2^ %1) 


PERFORM moveto (%f-c, %g-d) 



pencolor (%15) 


PERFORM lineto (%f-a, %g-b) 


d=RND ( 1 ) 

*200/57. 29578 


ON ABS( (c-a) /2+e) GOTO 50 



f illport 


ON ABS(d-b+e) GOTO 50 




GOTO 90 



graf ixon 





moveto (%0, %0) 




















moveto (%279, %95) 






1 REM 

* Random Shapes * 


FOR r=0 

TO 168 STEP d:x=279+r*COS 

2 REM 

3 REM 

* by Somvang Hansana ^ 

^ic • 


(r) :y=95+.7* (r*SIN(r) ) 

PERFORM lineto {%x, %y) :NEXT 

4 REM 

* Creates a variety of shapes* 


FOR a=l 

TO 750:NEXT 

5 REM 

"^ using straight lines. * 


GOTO 2 7 

6 REM 

* Copyright (c) 198 6 by * 



7 REM 



8 REM 




15 ON ERR INVOKE"/basic/bgraf .inv" 



2 PERFORM initgrafixrOFF ERR 


GOTO 27 /T77 

ON THREE December, 1986 


Call Three: Hot Line/Apple /// User Groups 

If you would like to get together with other Apple /// owners and exchange ideas, a user group is 
for you. Below is a listing of all Apple /// user groups known to us. If you have recently formed a 
group or know of one we have not listed here, please contact ON THREE and let us know so that they 
may be included. There is no charge for this service. 


Sacramento Apple /// User Group 
1433 Elsdon Circle. Canmichael.CA 95608 

Orange County Apple /// User Group 
22501 Eloise Ave., El Toro. CA 92630 

LA-So. Bay Apple /// Users Group 
P.O. Box 432. Redondo Beach. CA 90277 

/^ple /// Users of Northern California 
220 Redwood Highway *184 
Mill Valley. CA 94941 

International Apple Core Apple /// S.I.G. 
908 George Street, Santa Clara, CA95054 
(408) 727-7652 


Apples British Columbia Computer Society 

Apple /// S.I.G. 

P.O. Box 80569, Burnaby, BC 

Canada V5H3X9 


Canadian Apple /// Users Group 
80 Antibes Dr. Suite 2805 
Willowdale, Ontario, Canada M25R 3N5 

The Astronic Club 

1453 Highbush Trail, Pickering, Ont. 

Canada L1V1N6 (416) 839-7779 


Colorado Apple Three User Group 
P.O. Box 3155. Englewood. CO 801 12 


Apple /// Society of So. Connecticut 
34 Burr School Rd., Westport, CT 06880 
(203) 226-4198 


Sarasota Apple /// User Group 

c/o Connputer Centre 

909 S. Tamiami Trail, Nokomis. FL 33555 



Atlanta /// Society 

385 Saddle Lake Drive, Roswell, GA 30076 

(404) 992-3130 


Third Apple Users c/o Lavona Rann 
1 1 13 Wheaton Oaks Dr., Wheaton IL 60187 


Kansas City Apple /// User Group 
5533 Granada, Roeland Park, KS 66205 
(913) 262-3355 


So. Maine Apple Users Group 
Casco St.. Freeport ME 04033 
(207) 865-4761, X 2249 


Apple /// SIG Chairman 
Washington Apple Pi 
8227 Woodnnont Av. *201 
Bethesda, MD 20814 (301 ) 654-8060 


Minnesota Apple Corp Users Group 
P.O. Box 796, Hopkins, MN 55343 

New Jersey 

North Jersey Apple /// Users Group 

c/o Roger T. Richardson 

P.O. Box 251, Allamuchy, NJ 07820 


North Carolina 

North Carolina Apple /// User Group 
2609 North Duke St. * 103 
Durham, NC 27704 


Cincinnati Apple /// User Group 
5242 Horizonvue Drive 
Cincinnati, OH 45239 

Apple Dayton - Apple /// S.I.G. 

P.O. Box 1 666, Fairbonn, OH 45324-7666 

(513) 879-5895 


Oregon Apple /// Users Group 
1001 SW 5thAv. *2000 
Portland OR 97204 
(503) 645-6789 


Apple THREE Group International 

c/o Maj. H. Joseph Dobrowlski 

P.O. Box 913, Langley AFB, VA 23665 

Apple /// Users Belgium/Netherlands 
c/o H. Van der Straeten. Vestinglaan 49 
2580 Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium 

Apple User Group Europe e. V. 

Box 1 1 01 69 D-4200, Oberhausen 11, 

West Germany 0049-6195-7 3917 

Apple /// User Group Belgium/Netherlands 
c/o J. Woretshofer, Ganzerikweerd 22, 
NL-6229 TG Maastricht, The Netherlands 

British Apple Systems User Group (BASUG) 
Apple///S.I.G., P.O. Box174, 
Watford Herts, England WD2 6NF 
0727 73390/72728 

Le Club Apple 

43 Avenue de la Grande-Armee 

751 16 Paris, France 

Apple /// User Group 

c/o Canberra Accounting Services 

P.O. Box 42 

Duffy A.C.T. 2611 



Apple Corps of Dallas 
Apple /// SIG 
P.O. Box 5537 
Richardson, TX 75080 

River City Apple Corps III S.I.G. 
Box 13349, Austin, TX 78711 

Houston Area Apple Users Group 

(Apple /// Division) 

P.O. 80x610150 

Houston, TX 77063 

(713) 480-5690 or 974-5153 


Charlottsville Apple /// User Group 
216 Turkey Ridge Rd., 
Charlottsville, VA 22901 
(804) 642-5655 

Greater Tidev\/ater 
Apple /// User Group 
Route 2, Box 216 
Hayes. VA 23072 
(804) 642-5655 or 
898-3500, ext. 2671 

The Call Three: Hot Line is a service whereby 
Apple /// users with problems can call an area 
number to get assistance. The individuals answering 
the phones are fellow Apple /// users who have 
volunteered to help others over some of the rough 
spots. They are not compensated for this service, 
therefore we owe them a resounding "three 

We would like to expand this service even further, 
so if you are familiar enough with your machine to 
be able to aid others and answer questions, please 
write us, stating your areas of expertise and 
availability in terms of days and hours. Certainly you 
can bask in the knowledge that you have been able 
to help a fellow Apple /// user. 

For those of you who have questions, feel free to 
call our consultants listed below. Please obsepye 
however, the calling hours shown and before placing 
a call, double check the time zone so that you don't 
inadvertantly wake someone up! There are no other 
restrictions on using the service other than as 
stated above. Again, please remember these 
people are volunteers, and if we receive information 
indicating that calling hours are not being observed, 
we will have no choice but to remove the consultant 
from the listing or, worse, discontinue the 

The following is an alphabetical listing of subjects 
and abbreviations used in the "subjects" column of 
the consultants listing. 

Subject code Subject code 

Accounting AC 

Agriculture AG 

Assennbly Lang. AL 

Business Basic BB 

Catalyst CT 

Cobol CO 


Data Base DB 

Education ED 

Ennulation AE 

Financial FI 

Fortran FO 

General GE 











/// E-Z Pieces 

Word Proc. 



Coville Woodbum 

Ken Johnson 

Don Loosli 

Harry T. Hanson 

Edward N. Gooding, Sr. 

Jeff Fritz 

Al Johnston 

Paul Sanchez 

R.B. Thompson 

J. Donald Glenn 

Scott Weddel 

Jim Ferencak 

Neil Quellhorst 

Paul Thomas 

Earl T. Brelje 


Terri Wiles 

William Prince 

Karl La Rue 

Pat Holwagner 

M. Kent Hockabout 

Vincent F. Latona 
Wayne Hale 
Dennis R. Cohen 

Kelly C. McGrew 
H. Van der Straeten 
Rene Litt 

Area Telephone 























(603) 863-5590 
(305) 266-5965 

) 850-7472 
) 254-6465 
) 582-6459 
) 433-2323 
) 865-8579 


WA (206) 943-8533 
Belgium (015)205328 
France (88) 621025 

Days Hours Zone Subjects 

M,Tu,Th,F 7-8pm Eastern BB,CT,GE,GR,MI,QU,WP 

Su-Sa 6-9pm Eastem BB,PA,MD,WP,MI 

M-F 9am-5pm Eastem GE,WP,SS,DB 

M-F 6-9pm Eastem GE,PA,BB,CT 

Su-Sa 6-9pm Eastem CO,SS,PR,MD,CT 

M-Sa 8-1 1pm Eastem BB,DB,GE,MI,SS,TC,EP 

M-F 9am-6pm Eastem GE 

Su-Sa 10am-4pm Eastem SS,PR,CT 

Su-Sa lOam-lDpm Eastem BB,DB,GE,SS,WP 

Su-Th 7-lO^m Central GE 

Su-Sa 4-l(4m Central GE,TC 

M-F 10am-5pm Central GE,EP,DB 

Su-Sa 7-9pm Central AL,BB,GR,PA,SO,TC 

Su-Sa 6-lW Central GE,AC,BB,CP,DB,n,MI, 


M-F 4-9pm Central CT,DB,WP,GE, Quick File, Omnis 3 

Su-Sa 8am-10pm Central AL,CO,CT,EP,MD,PA,QU,SS,TC,WP 

Su-Sa 10am-6pm Mountain PA 

M-F 9am4pm Pacific GR,TC,Corvus 

F-Su 6-lOpm Pacific MD,GE,EP,WP,TC,SS,CP 

M-F 10am-6pm Pacific GE,SS,WP,CT,DB,SU,AE,EP 

M-F 9am-10pm Pacific DB,GE,GR,MI,MD,QU,SO,SS, 


M-F 9am-5pm Pacific GE',WP3B,'SS,AE 

M-F 7-1 lam Pacific BB,GR,CT 

Su, lOam-lOpm Pacific GE,PA,MU,WP,DB,SO 

M-F 7-9pm Sa 12n-6pm 

Su-M,Th-Sa 7-9pm Pacific DB,GR,SS,PR,MD,CT 

Su-Sa 7-lOtom Europe BB,CT,DB,GE,PA,PR,SS 

M-F 5pm-llpm Europe CT,EP,BB,PA 


December, 1986 ON THREE 

One, Two, /// Forum 

Printing Good Graphs 

Our office presently subscribes to ON THREE 
Magazine. I find it to be the only available source of 
reliable information about the Apple /// machine. We 
currently have about six of these machines in our 

The article "Printing Good Graphs" (see June 1986 
issue) by John Lomartire was very informative since I 
went through the same problems he described and tried 
to get help from all the parties involved (Apple, Sun 
Data, Dealers, B & PS). We bought the PIK program 
and finally got the program to work except that I have 
not been able to print any titles or floating titles. I'm 
trying to print using an Apple Plotter. Is there a 
command to do this? Also, do I need to store the data 
and titles in different files? 

I would also like to know: 

a) how to install Apple Writer and Apple Speller using 
Catalyst 2. We have a Profile. I have tried several 
path names and interpreters unsuccessfully. Again, no 
one has been able to help me. 

b) what I must do to connect an Apple Image Writer 
printer to an Apple /// (it was previously connected to a 
daisy wheel printer). 

Thank you very much for any assistance. 

Angle Vincenti 
Santa Clara, CA 

If any of you are having problems similar to those Ms. 
Vincenti experienced producing graphs, write to me 
and r II forward your letter to John Lomartire. He is 
an expert in this area, as anyone reading his article can 
tell. He was able to help Ms. Vincenti and Vm sure 
he'll be able to help you. 

To my dismay y my hard drive recently went down and 
I was faced with the task of reinstalling all of my 
programs. Although I used Selector instead of 
Catalyst, I was able to reinstall both Apple Writer and 
Apple Speller without difficulty. I suggest you do as I 
did; read the program-switching utility's manual from 
va2e one and follow the instructions to the letter. 

Catalyst provides for automatic installation of these 
programs, meaning that all you need do is insert the 
disk and your Profile will take the files it needs to run 
the program. 

Many users do not thoroughly read the product 
manuals accompanying their newly -pur chased 
software. Programmers for the most part write the 
software so it is as easy to use and install as possible. 
Firms marketing that software write manuals with the 
same goals in mind and have an added incentive as 
well; a well-written manual saves the firm much time 
in answering support calls and prevents the user from 
wasting time and money making them. Installing and 
using software can be easy. Just read the manual. 

Your printer problem is easily solved as well. The 
Apple ImageWriter printer is a serial printer, so the 
cable will attach to your Apple Ill's built-in RS-232 
serial port (see "Printer Selection and Set-up," 
November 1986). Therefore, any standard RS-232 
cable will suffice. However, you will also need a 
modem eliminator cable. Because the RS-232 port can 
be used for either a printer or modem, that special cable 
is required to let the computer know it is transmitting to 
a printer, not a modem. A modem requires two-way 
communication between the itself and the computer 
while a printer never sends information, it only 
receives. So the modem eliminator cable changes the 
transmission paths from both sending and receiving to 
send-only at the computer's end of the cable and 
receive-only at the printer's. 

Modem eliminator cables are available from Sun 
Systems Remarketing, P.O. Box 4059, Logan, UT 

Tell Me How 

I purchased "Draw On ///" from your company about a 
month ago. I was unable to configure it for my Epson 
printer. I fooled with it for about a month and then 
decided to call ON THREE for help. It took you about 
three minutes to discover I had the wrong disks and 
that no matter what I did, it wouldn't work. 

In most cases, the normal response in this type of 
situation is, "Well, you ordered the wrong disks (I 
may have)." Or, "Our shipping department made a 

ON THREE December, 1 986 


mistake (they may have). Send back the disks and 
we'll send you the correct ones (another two week 

Your solution was fabulous. "Don't bother sending 
back the disks because postage will cost you as much 
as the new disks. We (ON THREE) will send you the 
correct disks." Three days later, I was printing. This 
is service as it should be and I certainly appreciate it. 

NOTE: In my opinion, customers will not be satisfied 
using Draw On /// with the keyboard. The mouse or a 
joystick is a must. There is as much difference 
between using the keyboard and a mouse as there is 
between night and day. 

I would like to see ON THREE print business-type 
programs in BASIC and gadgetry-type programs, ie. 
how to program the gameports and RS-232 driver to 
send and receive voltages or resistance so lighting 
displays or such things as model train layouts can be 
controlled with the computer. I am not looking for an 
electrical engineer's explanation, just how to do it. 

Also, when you publish a program with something 
different, please explain how it works. For example, 
in a recently published spaceship program (see "Space 
Convoy," p.21, May 1986) the spaceships blink on 
and off. Why? How can I make other things blink? 

Keep up the good work and service to the customer. 

Scott J. Ralston 
Milton, FL 

First, thank you very much for your kind words about 
ON THREE. We do our best to keep our customers 
satisfied and we're always happy to hear that people 
appreciate it. 

In future issues of the magazine, I plan to include 
section-by-section descriptions of each published 
program's contents. For example, Td print in an 
introductory section, "Lines 200 through 300 in the 
program control the length and positioning of the 
vertical axes of graphs printed by the program." In the 
past, all we've really printed is, "Here's a program." I 
hope this sectioning will help. 

As far as "gadgetry-type" programs go, no one here is 
well-versed enough in electronics to prepare an article 
like the one you describe. I think it would inevitably 
have to be printed as an "electrical engineer's 
explanation." Something that complex probably 
requires more detailed descriptions than a simple how- 
to article provides. But perhaps one of ON THREE'^ 
readers will prove me wrong and write the article you 

desire. If so, please submit it or call me for a copy of 
our revised author guidelines. 

PFS File and Report 

Early this summer, I bought a copy of ON THREEs 
Uncopyprotect Driver. I was interested and 
disappointed to see that it would not copy PFS File. (I 
did not try to copy PFS Report.) 

I telephoned the company which wrote PFS File and 
Report. Their representative told me they were in the 
process of withdrawing support for the Apple /// and 
said that the only way to get a copy of either program 
was from existing dealer stock. 

Assuming my information is correct, would you 
consider revising the Uncopyprotect Driver so that it 
will copy PFS File and Report? Alternatively, would 
you consider creating a new program which will copy 
PFS File and Report? 

Thank you for your help. 

Robert Lewis Jackson 
St. Louis, MO 

Assuming that the producers of PFS File are 
withdrawing Apple III support, we may produce an 
Uncopyprotect Program for their software. However, 
we must be sure they are withdrawing support or else 
we could become entangled legally. 

Another reason we hesitate is that writing such a 
program is not as simple as writing the one we 
developed and marketed as the Uncopyprotect Driver. 
To copy Apple Writer, VisiCalc and Advanced 
VisiCalc, we created a new driver which the user need 
only load to use. However, we must write a separate 
program /(9r PFS that creates a new, copy able version 
of the program. This is much more difficult and 
expensive than simply creating a loadable driver. 

Bob Consorti, ON THREE'^ president, is considering 
this suggestion. If anyone has any other software or 
hardware wishes, please write. 

Meg-a Headache 

My company owns an Apple /// with a Corvus 5 meg 
hard drive which we use to do our accounting. We are 
using the Great Plains Accounting software. We need 
more storage and are interested in your Sider 20 or the 
Xebec 9730, but only if it will work with the Great 
Plains software. Could you tell me if these units will 
work with this software and the Apple ///? 


December, 1986 ON THREE 

We also need a fast tape back up for this system 
because it is now taking us about 40 minutes and 18 to 
20 floppies to do the job. What do you have that will 

We receive a lot of good information from your ON 
THREE Magazine. Thanks for keeping it going. 

Neil Biggs 
Charlotte, NC 

There is no easy answer to your inquiry. The problem 
is your software , Great Plains Accounting. If you 
want to upgrade your hard disks you must "remap" 
each file within the software program. Great Plains 
Accounting set up their program so that, upon initial 
installation, each file is told the size of the hard disk 
you are using. Therefore, if you put the program on a 
10 meg disk, the files will specify a 5 meg (your 
Corvus) and the program will not run. 

If you want to go to the trouble, there is a way to 
remap your files. Sun Systems Remarketing sells 
mapping utilities for each Great Plains Accounting 
program (accounting, payroll, etc.). This reinstallation 
is tedious. We recommend that if you have a system 
that is running, stick with it. 

If you want to talk to Sun Systems for their opinion, 
the address is P.O. Box 4059, Logan, UT 84321, 
(800) 821-3221 or (801) 752-7631. 

If you do decide to upgrade, we recommend you 
purchase the Sider 20 and not the Xebec 9730. The 
Sider is divided into two sections, one 16 meg and one 
4 meg. The data from your program will fit nicely into 
the 16 meg and you'll have plenty of room in the 4 
meg for Selector or Catalyst and your program. 

The Xebec is divided into three sections, two 16 megs 
and one 4 meg. What you will have with this is 16 
useless megs because the Xebec offers more room than 
you can use. Your Great Plains software will only 
recognize one volume (16 megs) for data storage, no 
matter how many are available. 

About your back up situation, Tm sorry to tell you 
there is no tape back up available for the III. You could 
cut your time by a factor of 5 or 6, however, by 
purchasing a UniDisk drive. Check with your local 
dealer for the hardware first because you may find a 
better price there. ON THREE sells the driver and 
documentation to make it II 1-compatible for $50 plus $3 
sih. You will need no more than 4 of these 3.5" disks 
to back up the information which now requires 18 to 
20, 5.25" floppies to back up. 

Ask and You Shall Receive 

1 have just received my first copy of ON THREE and, 
as I suspected, it raised more questions than it 
answered. Therefore, I forward this letter hoping you 
can help. 

1. Selector ///: Will Selector /// support Desktop Plan 
///, VisiSchedule and Easyterm ///? 

2. Draw On ///: I have my 256K Apple /// connected 
to an OkiData 83A with OkiGraph I installed through 
the Super Speed RS-232C serial interface board 
attached to the built-in RS-232 port. Can I use Draw 
On /// with this configuration? 

3. Graphics Manager: Can Graphics Manager be used 
as a stand alone with Business Graphics and will it 
work with my printer configuration? My Business 
Graphics program has been picked so that it supports 
the OkiData 83A both with and without OkiGraph L I 
am using it with OkiGraph I quite successfully. 

4. Uncopyprotect Driver: Will this program copy all 
Apple /// programs or just the ones you mention in 
your advertisement? I am particularly interested in 
Business Graphics and VisiSchedule. Also, will it 
copy Apple ][ game disks I am using in emulation? 

5. Mouse: What do I need to have a mouse for Draw 

6. Paddles: Can I attach a paddle or paddles to my 
Apple /// to use with games in Apple ][ emulation? 

The first issue of ON THREE was a revelation. I look 
forward to meeting all of you next year at the Apple /// 

Alan Cohen 
Jenkintown, PA 

As you have numbered your questions, so I number 
my responses: 

1. Selector III will support Desktop Plan III, 
VisiSchedule and Easyterm III. 

2 &3. You can use Draw ON III but with your current 
configuration it will not print. The way around this is 
to use Draw ON III to create your graphics and then 
store your creations on disk. Then use the Graphics 
Manager to load the creations back into your system 
and it will print. The same holds true with your 
Business Graphics program. 

ON THREE December, 1986 


4. Only the three mentioned programs are copy able 
using the Uncopyprotect Driver. It will not copy 
Apple ][ programs. However, a program called 
"Locksmith/' available at any computer store, will 
copy Apple ][ programs. 

5. The Apple He mouse comes with an interface card. 
Simply put the card in one of the four slots in your III 
and it will work with Draw ON III. 

6. Paddles can be used with your Apple III for games 
in Apple ][ emulation via Game Card III, available from 
ON THREE. We are currently selling it for $39.95 

plus $2 sih. 

And thank you for your generous words about the 
magazine. All of us at ON THREE are looking 
forward to meeting all of you at the Apple III 
Conference next year. 

Assembling on the /// 

I have recently acquired an interest in Assembly 
language programming for the Apple ///. Please send 
me any information on obtaining a macroassembler, a 
complete 6502B instruction set, the latest Pascal 
system, a complete memory map including a detailed 
ROM and direct page listing, and information from a 
machine-language level on I/O and bank-switching. 

Thank you in advance. 

Gerald Penn 
Columbus, OH 

/ showed your letter to ON THREE'5' president, Bob 
Consorti, and he smiled. He said he remembers 
having the same questions you do when he was first 
learning to program on the III. The following 
suggestions are from him. 

Apple III Pascal contains an assembler, so if you own 
that program you have a macroassembler. Sun 
Systems Remarketing, P.O. Box 4059, Logan, UT 
84321, (800) 821-3221 should have it in stock. 

He also suggests that you read the SOS Reference 
Manual. Another good book for you is "Program-ming 
the 6502," by Rodnay Zaks. It is published by Sybex, 
Inc., 2344 Sixth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710. You 
could write to them about obtaining a copy or finding a 
local distributor. 

I hope this helps. If your reading raises any more 
questions, please write or call. Well be happy to 
assist you. 

Upgrading Your Computer 

What I want to do, after much thought, is switch from 
Catalyst to your Selector program, expand my 
computer's memory with your 51 2K Memory Upgrade 
and add your Desktop Manager with all its available 
modules. However, I have questions concerning the 
actual conversion. Please bear with me as I know all 
of these questions have been answered in previous 
issues of ON THREE Magazine, but I have never seen 
them together in one spot. 

What is involved in converting Catalyzed programs to 
Selector? Does it require a lot of work? What are the 
drawbacks or problems I will face? Will I have as 
good of a system as I have now? What will happen to 
the programs now in my Profile after the conversion? 
I use Word Juggler as my main word processor and 
Terminus as my communications program. Will there 
be any problems with these? I am fully capable of 
modifying my own computer but am afraid I may have 
trouble installing the 512K Memory Upgrade. Is there 
anything you can do to reassure me? Any other 
relative information you can give is appreciated. 

As you can see, the reason I have not jumped into this 
venture yet is the unstable feeling in my stomach. I am 
worried about not having a system for a few weeks. I 
am not using my /// for business purposes. I am just a 
/// owner trying to leam all I can from a deleted 
machine. Thank heaven it's a good and smart system. 

I do have one more question. How can I scroll a 
BASIC program from top to bottom and back again? 

Thanks for taking the time to read this plea for help and 
for your answer. 

Larry R. Snow / 

Moorpark, CA 

/ am writing and publishing this rather long-winded 
response to Mr. Snow's letter because I know many of 
you, especially the beginners, will benefit from it. 

Converting a Catalyzed program to Selector is easy as 
long as the size of your hard disk remains constant (see 
"Meg-a Headache" elsewhere in this column). There is 
a 'fixer" program on the reverse side of ON THREE'S 
Uncopyprotect Driver which will remove the 
Catalyzation from your programs . Just load the fixer, 
insert the disk to be fixed and presto, it's done. There 
is not a lot of work. The only drawback is that our 
fixer program is a use-at-your-own-risk program. 
That is not a significant drawback, however, as we 
have never heard of it failing. 


December, 1 986 ON THREE 

Choosing between Selector and Catalyst is dijficult. I 
use Selector and wouldn't trade it for any other 
program-switching utility. Both Catalyst and Selector 
have drawbacks, but having used both, I prefer 

When switching from Catalyst to Selector, the 
programs in your Profile will be lost. If you're 
worried about losing data files, don t fret. Just copy 
them onto floppies using the utilities program 
configured for your Profile. Programs on the Profile, 
however, will have to be reinstalled (apiece of cake). 

There is no problem using Word Juggler with Selector. 
Most user groups have available to their members a 
version of Word Juggler which allows the two to work 
together. If you cant find one, send your Word 
Juggler back up disk (for ownership-verification 
purposes only) to ON THREE when you order 
Selector and well send you a copy of that Word 
Juggler program. Terminus will work with the altered 
version of Word Juggler. 

Your worries and fears about installing a 512K 
Memory Upgrade are unnecessary. Read "Do It 
Myself?" in this issue and learn how simple it is to 
install a 512K Memory Upgrade. 

As far as scrolling and editing your BASIC programs 
goes, those functions are available to you right now. 
Lloyd Cason, Jr. of New Orleans, LA kindly 
submitted the program listed below in response to 
Michael Schroeder's letter in September's "One, Two, 
III Forum" which raised the same question. 

What program editor could be better or more powerful 
than that of Apple Writer III or III E-Z Pieces ? Creating 
an ASCII file and employing Business BASIC'S 
"EXEC" command allow you to easily create and edit a 
BASIC program from your word processor and then 
run it under BASIC when your finished. Since Apple 
Writer saves its files as ASCII files, this word 
processor will do the trick. Ill E-Z Pieces' word 
processor does not save files as ASCII files but can 
effortlessly be made to do so. Its manual tells you 
how. The editing commands of either word processor 
are inherently greater than those built into BASIC. 

To edit an existing BASIC program this way, list your 
program while in BASIC. Then insert the following 
lines at the beginning of your program with the 
appropriate line numbers: 

ON TH tt€€ Presents. . . 

Spelling Manager $79.95 

plus $3.00 



, jr^^rt---^'^'- 

or w»"''^u*-". ** ,L\ »**"'■ * 

• Spell-check any/// E-Z Pieces 

• 80,000 words instantly available 

• Plus medical, legal dictionaries soon 

• Complete package Includes full 
documentation. Desktop Manager' 
module and standalone version 

order toll-free: (800) 443-8877 
in California: (805) 644-35 1 4 


ON THREE December, 1 986 








The first line creates and names an ASCII file. In the 
quotes, insert the drive you're using and after the slash 
the name you want the word processing file holding 
your program to have. 

The second line tells the computer where you want the 
data to go. In this case it's going to #7, which you 
created in the first line. 

In the third line, 255 is the number of columns your 
program is allowed to cover in the word processing file 
before beginning a new line. You may want to make it 
80 or some other more printable number. 

The fourth line lists the program according to the 
column number specified in line three and places it at 
the location you noted in line two. 

The fifth line closes the file. If the file is not closed, 
you wont be able to access it later. The computer will 
think someone is still working on it elsewhere and 
wont let you enter it. 

The sixth line ends your program and tells the 
computer to stop. If you omit this, the computer will 
create an ASCII file for the program as instructed in the 
first five lines and then run the program you want to 

After typing these lines and while still in BASIC, RUN 
the program. Now leave BASIC and enter your word 
processor. LOAD the program. Remember, the 
program you're loading has the name you gave it in the 
first line. 

Now you are free to scroll up and down and back up 
again. You may make changes to the program and 
even keep them. Just be careful not to insert a return 
within a line; insert them only between lines (e.g. 
between program line 430 and 435) or the program 
will not run. 

To run the altered program from BASIC, you must 
first delete the six lines (listed above) which you 
inserted to create the ASCII file. Now save the word 
processing file and boot your BASIC program. Once 
in, simply type: 


Be sure to use the drive and the name of the word 
processing file which contain your altered program. 
This simple "EXEC" statement will load your word 
processing fide as if it was a BASIC program. 

This EXEC statement is especially handy if you know 
the program you are about to type will require major 
revisions. To save yourself a great deal of time and 
effort, initially enter the program into a word 
processing document. Once it's complete and ready 
for a test run, convert it to a BASIC file by using the 
EXEC statement above. It's that easy. 

Typewriter vs. Printer 

In the July 1986 issue sent to me as a sample, Michael 
D. Johnson asked if there is any way to use his IBM 
Electronic Model 60 typewriter with his Apple ///. 
There have been several interface devices for the Model 
60, including parallel and serial adapters and a direct 
interface for the Apple ][ that I have used for several 
years. None of them were made by IBM but several 
received approval, so a maintenance agreement from 
IBM could apply to the machine. 

However, I very strongly DO NOT recommend using 
this typewriter as a computer printer. The reasons are 
almost entirely economic. The moving head of the 
Model 60 contains almost as many parts as an entire 
Selectric typewriter, aside from the keyboard. Its 
replacement cost is over $700 and a minor variation in 
timing due to gumminess inside can destroy enough 
parts to require replacement or rebuilding. A 
maintenance agreement is virtually required, because a 
slight misrepair can damage the same parts. Such an 
agreement costs $320 a year. 

It is currendy possible to buy a Diablo-compatible, 10 
characters-per-second (CPS) letter-quality printer for 
under $250 (the Epson DX-10); a Silver-Reed 
typewriter with interface built-in which prints at 12 to 
14 CPS for $399; and a Jade wide-carriage, Diablo- 
compatible printer that prints at 22 CPS for $299. 

At these prices, it is absurd to pay for an interface and 
add it to a fragile, loud, slow-printing typewriter just to 
run it until it breaks or pay an annual fee that is higher 
than the cost of printers which print faster, are quieter 
and have three or four moving parts instead of dozens. 

Thank you for the sample magazines. I will refer to 
them when I answer calls for the Apple Corps of 
Dallas related to the ///. It's a good-looking little 

Mike Firth ^ 

Dallas, TX 


December, 1986 ON THREE 

Thank you, Mr. Firth, for complimenting the magazine 
and providing such a concise review of using (or 
should I say not using) the IBM Electronic Model 60 
typewriter as a printer. You obviously have a great 
deal of experience in this area andVm sure your advice 
will help not only Mr. Johnson but many other readers 
as well. 


I have not yet received my September issue of ON 
THREE. It may be that my subscription has run out. 
If so, please send me the necessary information to 
renew, because I look forward to your magazine each 
month. It is one of the few magazines I read faithfully 
from cover to cover. 

Now for a few questions. Will Draw On /// do the 
same things as Print Shop, only better? 

Also, I have learned to program from Business BASIC 
reference manuals and your magazine. Most of my 
programs do not have the finesse or structure they 
should, but they work. I would like to use Pascal but 
cannot find a way to do the following: 

) INPUT#1, "Dx/FILE" 


As I understand from my Pascal manual, I must first 
dimension all arrays before I can read the file to see 
how big it is. This would be okay if dealing with 
small files or if you have a lot of memory and know 
that no more than a predetermined number of records 
will ever be in a file. 

Finally, where can I purchase /// E-Z Pieces or should I 
consider some other similar program? It would be nice 
to have a spelling checker. 

Thank you for your help and a fine magazine. 

Clark D.Hall 
Vemal, UT 

The reason you have not received September's ON 
THREE is the one you suspected; your subscription 
expired in August. To renew and charge it on your 
Visa, MasterCard or American Express call our toll- 
free number (800) 443-8877. If you'd like to pay by 
check or money order made payable to ON THREE, 
Inc., send it with your subscription request to ON 

THREE, P.O. Box 3825, Ventura, CA 93006. Back 
issues are available for $5, post-paid. 

I mentioned this last issue, but I think it is worth 
repeating as I am still receiving calls and letters from 
people whose subscriptions have expired. If you are 
not sure when your subscription runs out, check the 
mailing label of your current magazine. After your 
name, the month and year your subscription expires is 
printed. If your name is too long to allow this, please 
call or write. Anyone at ON THREE can find out 
when your subscription expires and it would be a 
shame to miss an issue because you were not sure. 

Your question about Draw ON III is a good one. Draw 
On III gives you more control over the drawings and is 
more functional than Print Shop. When combined 
with Draw ON III, the Graphics Manager lets you 
position your drawings almost anywhere and in almost 
any fashion you desire. You can even distort and 
elongate drawings. If your needs are basic, I 
recommend you purchase Print Shop. It is also easier 
to use. While Draw ON III and Graphics Manager are 
more complicated to use, it is only because the 
programs are so incredibly powerful and can do much 
more than Print Shop. 

The BASIC lines you listed above let the user include 
arrays (ordered strings of characters or numbers) in the 
program before knowing their actual length. 
However, there is no way to dimension (allocate a 
definite space in memory for) your arrays in Pascal this 
way. You have discovered the one small drawback of 
using Pascal. Your understanding is correct; you must 
first dimension all arrays before you can read the file to 
determine how big they are. 

Answering your last question, ON THREE is selling III 
E-Z Pieces for $135 plus $3.50 sih. Bob Consorti has 
completed the spelling checker for the program, so I 
think this is a wise investment for you. Apple Writer 
has a speller available, but considering the diversity 
and functionality of III E-Z Pieces, I think the latter is 
the better buy. 

As always, it's good to hear that readers enjoy the 
magazine and think so highly of it. 

EASY Answer 

I need help in finding a company. I recently found an 
Apple /// software program known as "EASY," 
Executive Accounting System. It was produced by the 
Denver Software Company, 14100 E. Jewell Avenue, 
Suite 15, Aurora, CO. They are no longer there, but I 
need to find them to be able to use the software. It 

ON THREE December, 1 986 


seems the company required the user to call them in 
order to receive a four-letter password. Without the 
password, the user has a locked program which is not 
usable. Can anyone in ON THREE land give me a 

Jim Reisinger 
Skokie, IL 

This is not a new question. Many people (see "One, 
Two, III Forum," September 1986) have experienced 
this problem. However, do not despair! I recently 
received the following letter responding to this not-so- 
EASY problem: 

In the September 1986 issue of ON THREE, John A. 
Palenz of Wichita, KS asked how to obtain the 
password to Denver Software's EASY Accounting 

I've used EASY since 1982. I ran a few of the EASY 
code files through NEWVIEW and here's what I 
found. The password for my copy of EASY is 
'DAYE', so I searched for any occurrence of that 

string. I didn't find it anywhere. Apparently, the 
program has some type of password encryption. But 
in the file PFPXOOA.CODE on the SYSTEM disk at 
location 2EF1, I found the string 'DCJS'. I booted 
EASY, tried DCJS and it worked. 

I suggest that anyone having this problem try that 
password. If it doesn't work, use NEWVIEW or any 
other dump routine or block editor to look at byte 2EF1 
in the file PFPXOOA.CODE, and try whatever is there 
as a password. 

If anyone has any problem with this or needs any other 
help, call me. 

Paul Thomas 

If you are in need of help, Paul Thomas is now listed 
in ON THREES "Call Three: Hot Line" section. Mr. 
Thomas is knowledgeable in a vast area of computer 
applications, so look for his name in the listing. 
Maybe hell be able to help you. 


ON THREE Presents. . . 

Graphics Manager ^ $49.95 

* ^ plus $3.00 s/h 

The compleat sraphics utility for the Apple /// interfaces to Draw ON ///'^ and 
all sraphics prosrams and allows printins enlarsed or reduced portions of the sraphics 
screen, normal or inverted, sinsle or double density and with four rotation values. 

For the first time you can load directly any DOS 3.3 or ProDos Hires or double 
Hires sraphic files (includins "Print Shop") and of course SOS fotofiles or other binary 
Sraphic imases. 

Comes complete with full documentation and diskette containins standalone SOS 
interpreter and a Desktop Manaser""" module. All popular printers, serial and parallel 
interfaces supported and limited color sraphics capability is included. 

• Available novi^l 


December, 1 986 ON THREE 

Improving Your Memory 

lynne denicola 

Where are your car keys? Does the local locksmith 
know you on a first-name basis? Well, I can't help 
you improve your memory, but I can help you enhance 
your computer's. 

How, you ask? By installing ON THREE'S 512K 
Memory upgrade, of course. And you don't have to 
be an electrician to do it. ON THREE receives calls 
and letters daily about this from hesitant, frightened 
people. They ask, "Will I be without my computer for 
long? I'm not mechanically inchned, so how difficult 
will it be for me to install this? I don't own any power 
tools, so how can I do it myself?" 

I am writing this for them and you, to assuage your 
anguished cries. The time and effort needed to install a 
512K Memory Upgrade are minimal. The benefits are 
abundant. So before I explain how to do it, I will tell 
you why you should. 

Room. You will have so much more of it to play with. 
Today's larger software programs can do more and, 
though concisely written, require more memory to do it 
in. And as you become more adept at using these 
programs, you will need more memory space as well. 
I'm sure each of you has experienced the frustration of 
having 512K habits on a 25 6K machine. 

Once you see how easy it is to install, you'll wonder 
why you didn't upgrade sooner. 

Installing the 512K memory board should take no 
longer than one hour. That's right, 60 minutes. The 
time is brief because, contrary to what many believe, 
you are not building a computer from scratch. You 
remove one old board and replace it with one new one, 
and remove four old computer chips and replace them 
with four new, 51 2K- adapted ones. Simple. We 
provide the board, the chips, the software to operate 
and test your new system and a chip extractor. The 
only tool you provide is one PhiUips-head screwdriver. 

NOTE: This is only a brief overview of the removal 
and installation procedures. If you are actually 
installing a board, use the more detailed instructions 
which accompany your board. 

Make sure your computer is off before you even think 
of installing the upgrade. Detach all cords, drives and 

cables. Then remove the cover and any real or dummy 
peripheral cards. If you're not sure how to remove the 
cover or cards, an easy-to-follow explanation is on 
p. 106 of the Apple III Owner's Guide. If you have an 
ON THREE O'clock, unsnap the battery pack. If you 
have some other clock, disconnect it. 

To reach the old board, you must tum your computer 
over and take the bottom off. This is where the 
Phillips-head screwdriver comes into play. The 
bottom is attached with Phillips-head screws. 

Once you've removed the screws, slowly lift the 
bottom plate away from the rest of the computer. 
Several cables are attached to the main circuit board, 
which is attached to the computer's bottom plate. So 
before completely removing the bottom plate, you must 
unplug the cables. Once it's plug-free, set it down 
(circuit-board-side up). 

Sitting on top of the main circuit board is the Apple /// 
256K memory board. It is smaller, about the size of 
yo\xr Apple III Owner's Guide, and attaches to the main 
board with two plug-type connectors, one at each end. 
You don't want 256K any more, do you? So, unplug 

But, before you plug in the new 512K memory board, 
you must change some chips on the main memory 
board. They are called PROM's, for Programmed 
Read-Only Memory, and they do just what the name 
implies: read memory. These control the way memory 
is used by your ///, and since there soon will be more 
memory available to it, the /// must be told how to find 
it. These four PROM's do just that. 

With the handy extracting tool (remember, it was 
provided with the new board) remove the PROM's 
from their sockets. They are clearly marked and easily 
removed. The extracting tool acts as a tiny crowbar to 
gendy pry the PROM's from their locations. DON'T 
6522 chip, will be reinserted after you install a new 
socket for it. The others can be returned, along with 
your old 256K memory board, for cash or ON THREE 

Now you are ready to install the new PROM's and 
your 51 2K memory board. You will eventually attach 

ON THREE December, 1986 


all of the PROM's to the main memory board. Three 
of the new PROM's have cables which connect your 
new 512K board to the main board while one is simply 
a new chip for the main board. Attach the one, cable- 
free chip first. 

Having done that, you can now plug in your new 
512K memory board. It fits into the two sockets left 
vacant when you removed the old 25 6K board. Now 
it is a simple matter to plug in the three remaining 
PROM's. All of these PROM's have cables which are 
akeady attached to the 512K board at one end, so all 
you must do is connect their other ends to the main 
board (also called a mother board). With these in 
place, you can re-attach the 6522 chip which you 
removed before. (When you plugged in the other end 
of one of those three cables, you plugged in the 6522's 
new socket.) 

You're finished installing the upgrade! All you need 
do is put the bottom back on your /// and test your new 
memory. Remember to reconnect all of the cables you 
disconnected before reattaching the bottom plate. But 
don't reinstall any of your interface cards until you've 
tested the memory. If you happened to have made a 
mistake, you will have less work to do taking the 
machine apart again to find it. 

Turn your /// back over, plug it in and insert the 512K 
Memory Test disk which came with your upgrade. 

from ON THR€€ 

Heep oil of i^our 
ON THR€€ mogozlnes 
in one ploce in 
our fioncli^ binder. 

•Holds 12 issues 

• niuioys Avoiloble 

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Blue print ujith 
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plus $3 
shipping/ handling 

fl great gift idea for 
your favorite Apple ///'er! 

Order nouj on our neiu toll-free line 
(800) 443-8877 (except California) 

Turn the power on, sit back, put your feet up and 
relax. If you did your job correctly, the /// will 
successfully make several passes in checking your new 
memory. If the program fails for any reason, check 
the manual provided with your upgrade to trouble- 
shoot. If you still can't figure out why it won't work, 
call ON THREE. That's why we're here! 

But you did install it correctly and the memory test has 
run successfully. Reconnect your peripheral cards 
first, according to the instructions in your Apple III 
Owner's Guide, and then the power, video, disk and 
other interface cables. 

With your system put back together, run the 512K 
Memory Test again. This time let it run for 30 minutes 
to thoroughly test the memory board (the /// reaches its 
maximum operating temperature after 15 minutes, so 
you want to let it run at that temperature for a little 

Your /// passed the test effortlessly, so you can pack up 
your old 25 6K board and PROM's, mail them to ON 
THREE and receive your cash or credit. Now you 
have a full 512K of memory at your disposal. 

Imagine the possibilities. 


Hurrah for ON THREE! 

ON THREE is America's leading Apple /// 
support group and Independent producer of 
quality software and hardware products, and 
ON THREE magazine, America's leading 
Apple /// magazine Is the official publication 

OI\l THREE magazine contains enlightening 
articles and programs about Pascal, BASIC, and 
assembler; technical hints, reviews, material for 
the novice and the advanced programmer, and in 
addition, you will always find news of exciting 
new and current OIM THREE products, user group 
listings and hot line consultants, plus the popular 
and informative "Three Questions" readers' forum. 

Chances are your ON THREE 
subscription is about to run 
out. If so, renew now and 
don't miss out on any of the 
interesting articles in future 
issues nor announcements 
of new and sophisticated 
ON THREE products. ON 
THREE Magazine, your bible 
of Apple /// information. 
Twelve issues for just $40.00, 
back issues available at 
$5.00, postpaid. 

ON THREE (805)644-3514 

P.O. Box 3825, Ventura, CA 93006 

Address _ 



D enclosed $ 

DM/C DVisa DAE* 



_ Phone _ 


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exp. date 


Decennber, 1 986 ON THREE 


richard and lavona rami 

Does the Apple /// Wear a Gray Pinstripe Suit? 

How do you see your fellow /// owners? Some see 
them in pinstripe suits behind desks in corporate 
America. Others see them in hard hats working with 
their hands. Still others see them with sleeves rolled 
up, bending over a drawing board, designing a bridge 
or a shopping center. When asked who uses an Apple 
///, we usually reply, "Anyone can." But in all truth, 
we're sometimes surprised to find out who these 
people are and how they use their ///'s. We thought 
you would be interested in leaming a little about the 
group as a whole and some of the many functions 
supported by the ///. 

Some general observations can be made about those of 
us who use ///'s. Congratulate yourself! As a group 
we have better-than-average intelligence, a wide variety 
of interests and an above- average amount of schooling. 
In a great number of us, these interests tip toward 
technical fields, although most ///er's cannot be 
considered hackers. We use our ///'s for a purpose. 
We, as a group, read more than the average number of 
magazines and books. To a large extent, when reading 
for fun we read science fiction, fantasies and 
mysteries. Our technical and professional reading 
comes in more flavors than Baskin-Robbins ice cream. 
If there is one statement which covers most of us, it is 
that we have and use our computers for specific 

One of the /// owners we met recently owns a yarn 
shop in Des Moines, lA. Lois Lloyd describes herself 
as a "grandmother-type" whose business necessitated 
her using a computer. Her /// was delivered with 
Profile and Catalyst installed and running. "Now what 
do I do?" she asked. What she did was learn 
everything she could about the Apple ///. And she's 
determined, so don't stand in Lois' way. 

In addition to retail businesses, we know of at least 
two town newspapers being managed on ///'s. Several 
novelists also use the ///. One, Sharon Webb, even 
writes science fiction. Do you suppose there is a 
correlation between Sharon's choice of subject matter 
and the high percentage of ///-using, science fiction 
readers? A number of articles for a wide variety of 
periodicals, including this one, are written on our 
favorite computer. Sports figures track their statistics 

on ///'s, and more common businesses such as 
restaurants, mainframe computer resale services, 
accounting firms, venture capital investing firms, 
churches, schools and banks depend on Apple ///'s. 

Not exciting enough for you? How about medical 
research? There are several ///'s used by individual 
researchers and entire university research departments. 
One is used to compile the research bibliography of a 
company which develops artificial organs, ///'s keep 
records in the Department of Mental Health for at jeast 
one state university. One company is supporting bio- 
engineering research with ///s and other sciences are 
well represented, from geophysical research to the 
softer sciences to economics. 

Last, but not least, in this brief sampling are the less- 
common uses for the Apple ///. One unique business 
matches American men with Asian and European 
women looking for husbands with the aid of a ///. 
Finally, the Apple /// is a movie star. It appeared in a 
supporting role in the Disney movie Tron. 

Part of the Family 

Had you ever thought of the /// as a family machine? 
No, we don't mean using the Titan ///+//e to support 
the fine educational and recreational software for the 
Apple ][, or the goodies developed by Mel Astrahan as 
part of the family entertainment center. What we mean 
is that many ///'s have been and are being purchased by 
members of the same family. Our user group has 
several sets of brothers, each using ///'s in different 
businesses, and a couple of cases in which grown 
children have purchased ///'s for their businesses after 
seeing how well the /// met their parents' needs. In a 
number of instances, parents have given ///'s to their 
children to take to college. 

This trend was taken to its logical conclusion by Al 
Bloom, who lives in a place he refers to as 
"Bleaksburg"-spelled Blacksburg in our Rand 
McNally- Virginia. He is an Apple /// owner and part- 
time developer. With full knowledge of how hard it is 
to learn to fully use a ///, he sent one to his retired 
father. His father had no computer experience and lives 
half a continent away, in New Mexico. Al is flady 
unashamed. His father is hooked. While Al doesn't 

ON THREE December, 1986 


admit to ///-pushing, he has been around computers for 
a while and knew a /// was exactly what his father 
needed to make his retirement business more efficient. 

Are User Groups Dying? 

Yes. Several /// user groups have gone under in the 
last year. There is some good news to be gleaned from 
this sad fact. First, as a whole, Apple /// user groups 
appear to be holding together longer than their cousins, 
the Apple ][ groups. Second, the primary reason for 
dissolution is not unique to the /// groups. It is the age- 
old problem of non-profit groups: lack of volunteers. 
Surprised? Most people guess a non-profit group 
would go under for lack of funding. In spite of 
relatively low membership fees, comparatively few 
groups die of financial problems or attrited 

membership. We, again, encourage you to get 
involved in the /// community. We suggest that you 
look at the services and/or groups available and decide 
how important they are to you. If you don't get 
involved, can you be certain that the groups and 
services will be there when you need them? 

Most groups have small cadres of dedicated workers 
that either need help or would appreciate some moral 
support. A few hours of your time, or maybe just a 
few encouraging words, could ensure that the group is 
still there to help solve your next technical problem. In 
a larger sense, with Apple once more listening to user 
groups, it is a way to be heard. While we can't 
promise miracles from Apple, there is much to be 


ON THR€€ Presents . . . 



plus $2 shipping and handling 

o nea/ multNevel arcade game by Mel Hstrahan 

• Use uuith joystick, keyboard or nnouse 

• Con be run as o Desktop Manager background nnodule 

The objective of SANDMAN is to score as many points as possible. 
Salvage all of the Pipple ///parts discarded throughout the halls 
of Apples labyrinthian research lab to receive points. WARNING! 
The lab is haunted by the ghosts of JOBs. . .if they catch you, 
you're done fori 

Your only weapon against the JOBs is to find the WOZ who 
wanders about the lab peeking in on various projects. For a short 
time following a meeting of SANDMAN and WOZ the JOBS turn 
blue and may be exorcised if you can catch them. 

'— Brilliant, colorful and fast moving, 
Sandman will provide hours of fun." 

I^ I cipplo. 

by M. RSTRftHRN 




December, 1 986 ON THREE 

ON THREE Presents... 

The Lowest Price Ever On The 
51 2K Memory Upgrade 

Now Specially Priced 

At Only 


The 51 2K Memory Upgrade from ON THREE has been 
the ///'s best selling add-on hardware item for the last two 
years. And now it's even better. With the loyvest price ever 
and a full six month warranty, now is the time to order your 
51 2K Memory Upgrade. 

Have you ever run out of memory in /// E-Z Pieces? Do 
your VisiCalc programs yearn for more memory? Have you 
ever had stack overflow problems with certain large 
programs? Do you want to use the new accessories to the 
Desktop Manager but can't spare the 32K of memory 
those utilities require? 

Worry no more, because with a 512K-equipped Apple 
///, all of your problems are over. Enjoy a full 41 4K of 
desktop space in /// E-Z Pieces, 442K in Advanced Visicalc, 
455K in Visicalc, 456K in Apple Writer ///, 456K in Business 
Basic-the list goes on. Almost air* programs running 
under the Apple /// SOS work with the 51 2K Memory 

Do you use Catalyst or Selector ///? Have you ever had 
problems running large programs such as State Of The Art 
Accounting, BPI, Omnis 3, Keystroke and Draw ON ///? 
These programs use all available memory in a 256K Apple 
///. Since Catalyst and Selector each occupy some memory 

as well, certain large programs will not work on a 256K 
Apple ///. 

A 51 2K Apple /// has enough memory and room to run 
the largest programs available today with some to spare. 
You can create larger spread sheets, data bases and word 
processing documents. Your 51 2K Apple /// will be able to 
do things few other personal computers can. 

Included free with the 51 2K Memory Upgrade is an 
ultra-fast RAMDisk. This is an optional enhancement to the 
51 2K Memory Upgrade which allows you to use a portion 
of your ///'s memory as a fast RAMDisk drive. One noticeable 
benefit is faster program utilization, but there are many 

The 51 2K Memory Upgrade is easy to install and even 
easier to use. It is a replacement memory board and, 
therefore, doesn't need a precious expansion slot. Hidden 
inside your Apple /// is a 128K or 256K memory board. 
Simply take out the old board and put in the new one. 

Using state-of-the-art 256K memory chips, the 51 2K 
Memory Upgrade is the single most exciting add-on pro- 
duced for the /// in a long, long time. Even though we 
have many 51 2K Memory Upgrades in stock, at this un- 
believably low price, we're expecting temporary shortages. 
Order yours today. 


The 51 2K Memory Upgrade includes: 

• Complete 24-page Instruction manual. 

• Ultra-fast RAMDisk Drive with demonstration programs. 

• The 51 2K Upgrade disk which automatically adjusts your 
disks to utilize the 51 2K of memory and contains the 
updated version (1.2) of the System Utilities program 
permitting larger SOS.DRIVER files. 

•The 51 2K Confidence Memory Program which tests all 
memory and ensures your 51 2K Memory Board is working 

• ON THREE'S new and improved 1 80 day (six month) warranty. 
•And of course, an Apple /// 51 2K memory board with 

state-of-the-art, 256K memory chips. 
Place your order today for the exciting, low-priced 51 2K 
Memory Upgrade. 

Call toll-free: (800) 443-8877 
California residents: (805) 644-3514 

*The purchase price is $324 plus $10 shipping and 
handling. After installing the ON THREE 51 2K Memory 
Upgrade, return your old 256K memory board for a $25 
cash rebate or a $35 software credit. 

If you have a 128K Apple ///, the cost is $324 plus 
$1 shipping and handling with no rebate. If you order a 
51 2K upgrade for your 128K machine, please ask for 
the free 1 28K to 51 2K instructions. We recommend that 
a 128K to 51 2K upgrade be done by ON THREE or a 
registered Apple Dealer. 

ON THREE will install any memory upgrade for just 
$50. We offer a one day turnaround on 1 28K or 256K to 
51 2K upgrades. Call for more information. 
**The regular Word Juggler program works with the 
51 2K Memory Upgrade but does not offer additional 
lines for your documents. An upgraded version is available 
which allows twice as many lines in your documents. To 
obtain it, please send a disk with return postage to ON 
THREE. However, there is one known problem with the 
updated Word Juggler package. It does not work with 
the LexiCheck spell checker option. To check the spelling 
of a very large Word Juggler document, you must divide 
it into two smaller sections. 

**The program Muftiplan from Microsoft does not 
recognize the 51 2K Memory Upgrade. 



Permit No. 90 
Ventura, CA 

Close Out! 

on all 

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A3 - 140K 

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A143 - 560K 

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Price Reduction 
Game Card /// 
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$59.95 $49.95 

plu5$2.00 shipping/handling 

Save $$$ now 
while supplies last 

Quantities Limited 
Call for availability 


Smart users select 

Selector /// 

The smart Program Switching utility 

from ON THREE 

• Switch to Selector /// now 

• Ideal for UniDisk or hard disk systems 

• Compatible with more than two dozen 
major Apple /// applications 

• AppleWriter /// 

• Business Basic 

• Haba Merge 

• /// E-Z Pieces 

. . . and more 5 V ^ plus $7 s/h 

Selector/// is a state-of-the art program switcher. 

A program switclier is a utility that functions as your computer- 
ized personal secretary. Its purpose is to make instantly avail- 
able to you, without rebooting, a wide range of applications 
programs stored on your hard disk or high capacity floppy 
(such as UniDisk). Programs such as AppleWriter ///, Quick 
File /// and more than two dozen others. 

Each time you require a different application, just tell your 
personal secretary. Selector///, with a couple of keystrokes, 
and it will be there in a couple of seconds. IMo need to find 
your way through sub-directories or paw through a stack of 

When you start your system up in the morning, just boot 
Selector/// and thaf s it for the day Smart users are switching 
to and with Selector/// now.